Conflict theory - New World Encyclopedia
Oath and all of its brands listed in Section 13 (including Yahoo and AOL . for or subscribed to a Service) remains up to date, complete, accurate and truthful. .. If there is a conflict or inconsistency between the terms in this document and the for the purpose of internal restructuring (for example, mergers or liquidations). Jan 28, The symbolic-interaction approach explains how people define deviance in everyday situations. One theory in particular, labeling theory. He authored a 56 page book called A Theory of Indexing which does a great job explaining many of There is still conflict surrounding the exact reasons why Project Xanadu failed to take off. .. For example, both Yahoo and MSN have question answering services where humans answer each Up to date through
You authorise and direct us to charge your designated payment method for these charges or, if it fails, to charge any other payment method you have on file with us, even if we received it in association with other fee-based services. You are responsible for all charges even if your payment method fails or is denied. You authorise and direct us to retain all information about any payment method s associated with your account. We may import payment information that you entered during a prior purchase and provide you with the option to use that payment information during purchase of a new product.
You permit us to obtain and use updated information from the issuer of your payment method in accordance with the policies and procedures of any applicable card brands. Surcharges may apply if you use certain payment methods, such as payment from your checking or savings account. We may charge for fee-based Services in advance and on a daily, monthly, yearly, lump sum or other basis in accordance with the stated terms, as long as your subscription remains active, even if you have not downloaded or used the Service or accessed your online account.
We use auto-renewal for many of our fee-based Services. On expiry of each subscription term for such fee-based Services, we will automatically renew your subscription and charge the credit card or other payment method you have provided us with, unless you cancel your subscription at least 48 hours before the end of the current period.
Unless otherwise stated in Section 14, your subscription will be automatically renewed at the then-current price, excluding promotional and discount pricing.
We may, at our sole discretion, post charges to your payment method individually or aggregate charges for some or all of your fee-based Services with us.
You authorise us to do so for verification and anti-fraud purposes. Unless otherwise stated and unless you cancel your subscription prior to the expiry of the Free Trial, periodic subscription fees will be charged at the then-applicable rate upon expiry of the Free Trial period and will continue to be charged until the subscription is cancelled.
If you are not satisfied with a particular fee-based Service, you must cancel the subscription before the Free Trial ends to avoid charges. We reserve the right to limit you to one free trial or promotion of a fee-based Service and to prohibit the combining of free trials or other promotional offers. All charges are non-refundable unless provided otherwise in the terms you agree to when you register for a fee-based Service, unless stated differently for your region in Section 14 or as otherwise specified below.
We, at our sole discretion, may change, discontinue or terminate any or all aspects of a fee-based Service without notice, including access to support services, content and other products or services ancillary to the fee-based Service, subject to providing an appropriate refund for any portions of a specified but no longer available term. Change in fees and billing method.
We may change our fees and billing methods at any time. We will provide you with notice of any price increase at least thirty 30 days in advance. Subject to applicable law, i if you disagree with any proposed change, your sole remedy is to cancel your fee-based Service before the price change takes effect and ii your continued use of or subscription to the Service after the price change takes effect constitutes your agreement to pay the new price for the Service.
After 30 days from the date of any unpaid charges, your fee-based Service will be deemed delinquent and we may terminate or suspend your account and fee-based Service for non-payment. You are liable for any fees, including legal and collection fees, incurred by us in our efforts to collect any remaining balances from you. You must notify us about any billing problems or discrepancies within 90 days of them first appearing on your billing method statement.
If you do not bring them to our attention within 90 days, you agree that you waive your right to dispute such problems or discrepancies. About these Terms Third-party beneficiaries and conflicts.
Oath Terms of Service
These Terms control the relationship between Oath and you. They do not create any third-party beneficiary rights. If there is a conflict or inconsistency between the terms in this document and the additional terms associated with a particular Service, the additional terms will control solely for that conflict or inconsistency.
Modification of the Terms. Unless stated differently for your region in Section 14, we may modify the Terms from time to time. Unless we indicate otherwise, modifications will be effective from the date they are posted on this page or any successor page. You should look at the Terms regularly. We will provide notice in accordance with Section 3 c above of material modifications. Continued use of the Services.
Functionalist and conflict theory?
You may stop using the Services at any time, but your continued use of or subscription to a Service after the effective date of any modifications to the Terms means that you agree to the Terms as modified.
Waiver and Severability of Terms. The failure of Oath to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these Terms will not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any provision or part of a provision of these Terms is found to be invalid, Oath and you nevertheless agree to give effect to the intentions as reflected in the provision, and the other provisions of these Terms remain in full force and effect. Oath may freely assign these Terms and all of the policies and other documents incorporated or referenced in it including all rights, licences and obligations under it or themin whole or in part and without notice, for any reason, including for the purpose of internal restructuring for example, mergers or liquidations.
Provider of Services The Services are provided by the company that offers the Services in your region as set out in Section The Wikipedia offers background and many resource links about Mr. Advanced Research Projects Agency Network: ARPANet is the network which eventually led to the internet.
The first few hundred web sites began in and most of them were at colleges, but long before most of them existed came Archie. The original intent of the name was "archives," but it was shortened to Archie. Archie helped solve this data scatter problem by combining a script-based data gatherer with a regular expression matcher for retrieving file names matching a user query.
Essentially Archie became a database of web filenames which it would match with the users queries. Bill Slawski has more background on Archie here. As word of mouth about Archie spread, it started to become word of computer and Archie had such popularity that the University of Nevada System Computing Services group developed Veronica.
Veronica served the same purpose as Archie, but it worked on plain text files. Soon another user interface name Jughead appeared with the same purpose as Veronica, both of these were used for files sent via Gopher, which was created as an Archie alternative by Mark McCahill at the University of Minnesota in If you had a file you wanted to share you would set up an FTP server.
If someone was interested in retrieving the data they could using an FTP client. This process worked effectively in small groups, but the data became as much fragmented as it was collected.
While an independent contractor at CERN from June to DecemberBerners-Lee proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers.
With help from Robert Cailliau he built a prototype system named Enquire. The first Web site built was at http: It provided an explanation about what the World Wide Web was, how one could own a browser and how to set up a Web server. It was also the world's first Web directory, since Berners-Lee maintained a list of other Web sites apart from his own.
Tim also created the Virtual Librarywhich is the oldest catalogue of the web. Tim also wrote a book about creating the web, titled Weaving the Web. What is a Bot? Computer robots are simply programs that automate repetitive tasks at speeds impossible for humans to reproduce. The term bot on the internet is usually used to describe anything that interfaces with the user or that collects data.
Search engines use "spiders" which search or spider the web for information. They are software programs which request pages much like regular browsers do. In addition to reading the contents of pages for indexing spiders also record links.
Link citations can be used as a proxy for editorial trust. Link anchor text may help describe what a page is about. Link co citation data may be used to help determine what topical communities a page or website exist in.
Additionally links are stored to help search engines discover new documents to later crawl. Another bot example could be Chatterbots, which are resource heavy on a specific topic. These bots attempt to act like a human and communicate with humans on said topic. Parts of a Search Engine: Search engines consist of 3 main parts. Search engine spiders follow links on the web to request pages that are either not yet indexed or have been updated since they were last indexed.
These pages are crawled and are added to the search engine index also known as the catalog. When you search using a major search engine you are not actually searching the web, but are searching a slightly outdated index of content which roughly represents the content of the web. The third part of a search engine is the search interface and relevancy software. For each search query search engines typically do most or all of the following Accept the user inputted query, checking to match any advanced syntax and checking to see if the query is misspelled to recommend more popular or correct spelling variations.
Check to see if the query is relevant to other vertical search databases such as news search or product search and place relevant links to a few items from that type of search query near the regular search results.
Gather a list of relevant pages for the organic search results. These results are ranked based on page content, usage data, and link citation data. Request a list of relevant ads to place near the search results.
Searchers generally tend to click mostly on the top few search results, as noted in this article by Jakob Nielsenand backed up by this search result eye tracking study. Want to learn more about how search engines work? In How does Google collect and rank results? Google engineer Matt Cutts briefly discusses how Google works.
Google engineer Jeff Dean lectures a University of Washington class on how a search query at Google works in this video. The Chicago Tribune ran a special piece titled Gunning for Googleincluding around a dozen audio interviews, 3 columns, and this graphic about how Google works.
Types of Search Queries: Informational - seeking static information about a topic Transactional - shopping at, downloading from, or otherwise interacting with the result Navigational - send me to a specific URL Improve Your Searching Skills: Want to become a better searcher?
Most large scale search engines offer: Vertical search databases which may help structure the information index or limit the search index to a more trusted or better structured collection of sources, documents, and information. Notess's Search Engine Showdown offers a search engine features chart. There are also many popular smaller vertical search services. World Wide Web Wanderer: Soon the web's first robot came.
He initially wanted to measure the growth of the web and created this bot to count active web servers. He soon upgraded the bot to capture actual URL's.
His database became knows as the Wandex. The Wanderer was as much of a problem as it was a solution because it caused system lag by accessing the same page hundreds of times a day. It did not take long for him to fix this software, but people started to question the value of bots.
ALIWEB crawled meta information and allowed users to submit their pages they wanted indexed with their own page description. This meant it needed no bot to collect data and was not using excessive bandwidth. Martijn Kojer also hosts the web robots pagewhich created standards for how search engines should index or not index content.
This allows webmasters to block bots from their site on a whole site level or page by page basis. By default, if information is on a public web server, and people link to it search engines generally will index it.
In Google led a crusade against blog comment spam, creating a nofollow attribute that can be applied at the individual link level. After this was pushed through Google quickly changed the scope of the purpose of the link nofollow to claim it was for any link that was sold or not under editorial control. By December ofthree full fledged bot fed search engines had surfaced on the web: JumpStation gathered info about the title and header from Web pages and retrieved these using a simple linear search.
As the web grew, JumpStation slowed to a stop. The problem with JumpStation and the World Wide Web Worm is that they listed results in the order that they found them, and provided no discrimination. The RSBE spider did implement a ranking system.
Since early search algorithms did not do adequate link analysis or cache full page content if you did not know the exact name of what you were looking for it was extremely hard to find it. Excite came from the project Architext, which was started by in February, by six Stanford undergrad students.
They had the idea of using statistical analysis of word relationships to make searching more efficient. They were soon funded, and in mid they released copies of their search software for use on web sites. In October, Excite Home filed for bankruptcy. When Tim Berners-Lee set up the web he created the Virtual Librarywhich became a loose confederation of topical experts maintaining relevant topical link lists.
It was organized similar to how web directories are today. The biggest reason the EINet Galaxy became a success was that it also contained Gopher and Telnet search features in addition to its web search feature. The web size in early did not really require a web directory; however, other directories soon did follow. Directory as a collection of their favorite web pages.
As their number of links grew they had to reorganize and become a searchable directory. What set the directories above The Wanderer is that they provided a human compiled description with each URL.
As time passed and the Yahoo! As time passed the inclusion rates for listing a commercial site increased.Conflict Theory Example Raymond The Angry Family
Many informational sites are still added to the Yahoo! On September 26,Yahoo! Directory at the end ofthough it was transitioned to being part of Yahoo! Small Business and remained online at business. Open Directory Project In Rich Skrenta and a small group of friends created the Open Directory Projectwhich is a directory which anybody can download and use in whole or part.
The Open Directory Project was grown out of frustration webmasters faced waiting to be included in the Yahoo! Netscape bought the Open Directory Project in November, DMOZ closed on March 17, When the directory shut down it had 3, active listings in 90 languages.
Oath Terms of Service | Oath Policies
Numerous online mirrors of the directory have been published at DMOZtools. LII Google offers a librarian newsletter to help librarians and other web editors help make information more accessible and categorize the web.
The second Google librarian newsletter came from Karen G. Schneider, who was the director of Librarians' Internet Index. LII was a high quality directory aimed at librarians. Her article explains what she and her staff look for when looking for quality credible resources to add to the LII. Most other directories, especially those which have a paid inclusion option, hold lower standards than selected limited catalogs created by librarians.
The LII was later merged into the Internet Public Librarywhich was another well kept directory of websites that went into archive-only mode after 20 years of service. There are also numerous smaller industry, vertically, or locally oriented directories. Donnelley, which let them to sell the Business. Studies of user typology on the site have revealed that some users answer from personal knowledge — "specialists" — while others use external sources to construct answers — "synthesists", with synthesists tending to accumulate more reward points.
They also show that answer length is a good predictor of "best answer" choice. Answers is not very deep. Answers' reputation of being a source of entertainment rather than a fact based question and answer platform,   and for the reliability, validity, and relevance of its answers. A study found that Yahoo! Answers is suboptimal for questions requiring factual answers and that the quality decreases as the number of users increases.
Answers provides, particularly the persistence of inaccuracies, the inability to correct them, and a point structure that rewards participation more readily than accuracy, all indicate that the site is oriented towards encouraging use of the site, not offering accurate answers to questions. Answers itself indicate that Yahoo!