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Heterotrophic aquaculture system is an environmental friendly shrimp culture that has a huge E-mail: [email protected] Received Date: January 09, ; Accepted Date: April 16, ; Published Date: April 23, The aquaculture systems were autotrophic and heterotrophic aquaculture system, while. Dinoflagellates are conventionally categorized into autotrophs and heterotrophs according to the presence or absence of chloroplast pigments. Since the. Are archaebacteria autotrophs or heterotrophs? - Yahoo! Answers Is Archaebacteria heterotrophic or autotrophic? is fungi autotroph or.
The conversion of biovolume to carbon content was calculated according to Menden-Deuer and Lessard Menden-Deuer and Lessard, for dinoflagellates: As a result, the inner marginal waters have a lower salinity on average, salinity being always higher next to the harbour entrance Station 4.
Overall, the harbour salinity fluctuated from There were two other incidents of abnormally low salinity everywhere in the harbour Figure 2. Dinoflagellates dominated the population both in number of species 45 and in numerical standing crop.
Diatoms followed, with 21 species, then cyanobacteria with three species, and there were two species each of raphidophytes and chlorophytes. The heterotrophic dinoflagellate HTD and mixotrophic dinoflagellate MTD communities were relatively species-poor, 14 and four species, respectively. The obligate autotrophs OA were much richer, with 55 species, five of which were always numerically dominant Table I.Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs
All species in Table I are ubiquitous and perennial in the inshore waters east and west of Alexandria as well as in the Eastern Harbour Ismael, The four MTD species were numerically the most abundant The diatom Skeletonema costatum was the most abundant among the phytoplankton species, sometimes alternating with Cyclotella meneghiniana.
Blooms of these two species, however were usually much more modest than those of the MTD. The HTD ranged from 1. As a rule, fluctuations in the standing crop of OA and MTD reflected salinity fluctuations; the three phases of lower salinity almost always corresponded to peaks of cell density for both Figure 3.
Their peaks of abundance corresponded to a salinity range of 33— The correlation between salinity, the MTD and OA numerical standing crop was negative and significant at all stations, but most obviously at Station 3, which was lowest in average salinity and highest in numerical standing crop. The MTD population consisted of comparatively small cells ranging in biovolume from 1.
This range was much wider for the OA, 0. Both had a much narrower biovolume range than the HTD 1. The upper range of the HTD cell biovolume is related to the occasional abundance of P. A different picture emerges when the total carbon biomass is considered. The HTD were lowest, both in average, Their biomass fluctuations were therefore restricted to a narrower range, in parallel with their numerical standing crop Figure 4. Correlations were computed between the three trophic categories and the three major zooplankton groups; the ciliate tintinnids, planktonic larvae trochophores, nauplii, veliger and spionid larvae and copepods.
No correlation was found between larvae and the three trophic categories during the period of study. The model is based on the in vivo trophic relations reported by others Bartram, ; Uchida et al.
Is an earthworm an autotroph or an heterotroph?
There are three unknown components, which prevent quantification of this model: The correlations show negative and significant relations between copepods and the three categories but not by ciliates or larvae. Size selectivity in feeding is known to occur with copepods, copepod grazing being more effective on relatively larger sized particles Bartram,in this case, the HTD rather than the MTD and the OA.
Both HTD and MTD may feed on bacteria, obligate autotrophs such as cyanobacteria, raphidophyta, diatoms, chlorophyta and dinoflagellates Jeong, They also feed on copepod eggs Jeong, ; Hansen and Calado, and on tintinnids such as Favella spp.
The drop in abundance of tintinnids in the presence of HTD and MTD peaks suggests that the latter two categories may prey substantially on tintinnids Figure 6. Predation on copepod eggs will affect the rate of growth of the copepod population, reducing their grazing pressure. These predator—prey relationships can be reversed at any time and carbon biomass can be recycled rapidly between trophic levels, regardless of size.
Such interactions do not fit readily into conventional conceptions of microbial food webs. This is comparable to other inshore waters. In the open oceans, most observations show a lower range, 0.
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Autotrophs and Heterotrophs ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation
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Autotroph - Wikipedia
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