+Correspondind author: [email protected] Financial . J Aquatic Animal Health 9: Perspectivas no controle ambiental dos moluscos vetores da. summary of comments contained in the reply of the Secretariat (dated 7 July animal health and welfare, (b) food safety, (c) environmental . Email: [email protected] .. Jefe de Laboratorio de Moluscos. Biodiversidad de moluscos marinos del sSambaqui da tarioba, Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) Correo-e: [email protected]; [email protected] vm.u .br; that have been recognized as arti cial constructions dating between and . animals during the Holocene (Reitz & Wing ).
Investigation of fish, frogs, and tadpole kill was adapted from standard guidelines APHA Two other freshwater snails were found, Lanistes ovum in two ponds and Ferrissia sp. The concentration of 0. Bayluscide was applied to 16 ponds at concentrations of 0 4 ponds0. The degree of fish, frogs, and tadpoles kill was minimal at 0.
During a spot visit 24 h post application at one of the pond 4 which was treated with 0. No fish kill was observed 24 h after a fish pond 16 was treated with Bayluscide at 0. The Bayluscide scale used was based on the assumption that all ponds in the region have similar shapes. In fact, some of the pools were rather deep, leading to underdosing.
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Nonetheless, the application of Bayluscide at 0. The low fish kill observed at 0. This is a major achievement of the present study. Human populations living in endemic areas have generally been resentful of molluscicides because they are lethal to fish stock. The fact that 0. As the quantity of Bayluscide used per unit of pond margin is reduced, the cost of mollusciciding may be lowered, thus improving its acceptability and cost-effectiveness in schistosomiasis control. The advantage of the simplified procedure is that the villagers can easily be trained on safety guidelines, to recognise transmission sites and apply Bayluscide at effective regimens Greer et al.
The effect of Bayluscide on non-target water organisms depends on the motility of these organisms in water, but also on their sensitivity to Bayluscide HarrisonGebremedhin et al. The rapid mortality of B. Frogs and fish are capable of rapidly moving to areas of low chemical concentration in deeper sections of the pond. Because snails are practically immotile, they remain in areas of higher concentrations of Bayluscide at ponds margins.
This explains the higher mortality in snails and increased survival of fish and frogs that are a valuable source of protein for the human population.
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The differential susceptibility of aquatic organisms to Bayluscide has been used elsewhere to control nuisance organisms in the aquaculture industry Francis-Floyd et al. The live snail count registered at 24 h post application in some ponds may be related to the fact that this period is still within the 48 h recovery period reported earlier for Biomphalaria stramina in Brazil Giovanelli et al. Earlier reports of snail escape behaviour including water leaving and burrowing Sarquis et al.
In the present study, the assessment of fish, frogs, and tadpole kill was limited by the fact that not all ponds harboured these organisms. It would have been usefull to determine pre application estimation of non-target organism population, as the impact assessment would have then been stronger.
Whereas this limitation may decrease the strength of our assertions, it does not decrease the validity of our observations. We used our observational evidence to determine the presence of these organisms, and believe these to be sufficient for our estimations. Unfortunatelly, because of earlier equivocal beliefs about mollusciciding, studies and interventions on snail control have been underrated Sarquis et al. Bayluscide should be applied following the simplified procedure in two round of 0.
The simplified procedure may apply in areas where transmission is focal. It will also be effective in lentic habitats where most of the snail population is located on water body margins. This would be the case for lakes or dams. This approach is simple and could facilitate the integration mollusciciding for schistosomiasis control in the primary health care package.
Am J Trop Med Hyg Investigation of fish kills. Chippaux J-P, Massougbodji A. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Spatial patterns of urinary schistosomiasis infection in a highly endemic area of costal Kenya.
Control of schistosomiasis in large irrigation schemes bus use of niclosamide. A ten years study in Zimbabwe. Use of Bayluscide Bayer 73 for snail control in fish ponds. J Aquatic Animal Health 9: Hirudicinal activities of some natural molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control.
The molluscicidal activity of Niclosamide Bayluscide WP 70 on Melanoides tuberculata Thiaridaea snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata Planorbidae.
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