C1 Advanced exam dates | Cambridge English
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message In an atmosphere of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly intertwined during this period. Small, lightly equipped armies reflected the need for society to be on constant alert. These forces were capable of moving long distances in short times, allowing a quick return home after sacking a target.
Battles were mainly waged between clans, expelling intruder armies or sacking expeditions. In the context of the relative isolation of the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe, and the contact with Moorish culture, geographical and cultural differences necessitated the use of military strategies, tactics, and equipment that were markedly different from those found in the rest of western Europe during this period.
Medieval Iberian armies mainly comprised two types of forces: Infantry only went to war if needed, which was not frequent. Cavalry and infantry[ edit ] Iberian cavalry tactics involved knights approaching the enemy, throwing javelinsthen withdrawing to a safe distance before commencing another assault.
Once the enemy formation was sufficiently weakened, the knights charged with thrusting spears lances did not arrive in Hispania until the 11th century. There were three types of knights caballeros: Royal knights were mainly nobles with a close relationship with the king, and thus claimed a direct Gothic inheritance. Royal knights were equipped in the same manner as their Gothic predecessors: Noble knights came from the ranks of the infanzones or lower nobles, whereas the commoner knights were not noble but were wealthy enough to afford a horse.
Uniquely in Europe, these horsemen comprised a militia cavalry force with no feudal links, being under the sole control of the king or the count of Castile because of fueros charters with the crown. Both noble and common knights wore padded armour and carried javelins, spears and round-tasselled shields influenced by Moorish shieldsas well as a sword.
The peones were peasants who went to battle in service of their feudal lord. Poorly equipped, with bows and arrows, spears and short swords, they were mainly used as auxiliary troops. Their function in battle was to contain the enemy troops until the cavalry arrived and to block the enemy infantry from charging the knights. The longbowthe composite bowand the crossbow were the basic types of bows and were especially popular in the infantry. Armour was typically made of leather, with iron scales; full coats of chain mail were extremely rare and horse barding completely unknown.
Head protections consisted of a round helmet with nose protector influenced by the designs used by Vikingswho attacked during the 8th and 9th centuries and a chain mail headpiece. Shields were often round or kidney-shaped, except for the kite-shaped designs used by the royal knights.
Usually adorned with geometric designs, crosses or tassels, shields were made out of wood and had a leather cover. Steel swords were the most common weapon. The cavalry used long double-edged swords and the infantry short, single-edged ones. Guards were either semicircular or straight, but always highly ornamented with geometrical patterns. Spears and javelins were up to 1. Maces and hammers were not common, but some specimens have remained and are thought to have been used by members of the cavalry.
Finally, mercenaries were an important factor, as many kings did not have enough soldiers available. NorsemenFlemish spearmen, Frankish knights, Moorish mounted archers, and Berber light cavalry were the main types of mercenaries available and used in the conflict.
Technological changes[ edit ] This style of warfare remained dominant in the Iberian Peninsula until the late 11th century, when lance tactics entered from France, although the traditional horse javelin-shot techniques continued to be used.
At least ZIMSEC offers a level playing field as it recommends set books from the commercial market, and leaves educationists to get whichever textbooks are appropriate to cover a syllabus. Despite the affiliations and accreditation, ZIMSEC points out that one of the most frequent asked questions is whether the localisation of examinations has not led to a decline in standards of examinations.
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One then wonders why a section of the Zimbabwean community could claim that assessment standards plummeted with the complete takeover of examinations by ZIMSEC such that they will struggle to find a place at any reputable university in the future. Localisation was a phased process and was carefully executed to ensure that assessment was not compromised ZIMSEC At this point ZIMSEC only played an administrative role in ensuring that the examinations were conducted in time and under appropriate conditions.
This included the training of markers, chief examiners, item writers and other essential personnel. During all this time there were no problems of examinations credibility. There is a multiplicity of reasons for such a scenario: Zimbabwe has existed for a greater part of its life as a socially divided community of haves and the have not. The previous advantaged communities could not accept competing with the less privileged through the same exam.
Basing the exam on the same values and goals increased competition for all and hence falling standards could be a necessary scapegoat. Previously, a Cambridge School Certificate was a passport for admission to many foreign Universities.
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However, with ZIMSEC certificates, they had to be evaluated first before gaining entrance and in some cases at a cost. This probably did not imply an inferior education system but that at that point ZIMSEC was an institution of unknown reputation. Lastly the idea of high standards and quality is central in the Zimbabwean society be it in the sourcing of goods or services. School certificates have always been seen to be issued by a University Cambridge or University of London.
The sudden change where a University seal is no longer visible on a school certificate is the cause of credibility rumblings. What Zimbabweans fail to appreciate is that localisation did not only take place in Zimbabwe, but also in many SADC states such as Botswana, Swaziland and Tanzania, and examinations councils in these states are the sole certifying authorities. The nostalgic feeling of the good old days takes time to pass away and at times, creates perceived problems where they are nonexistent.
However, credibility questions could have been fuelled by technical problems such as examination leaks and at times the administration of wrong papers during an exam. The continued leaking and disruptions of ZIMSEC examinations each year have had a negative impact on the credibility of the local examinations body. Ncube What most people fail to realise is that such problems are not only pertinent to Zimbabwe but to many countries worldwide.
Probably one could ask; what could be the best way forward to restore confidence in the examination system? The degree of the partnership could vary from Cambridge International Examinations CIE 7 taking direct control of the examinations to acting as a validating body.
Either way that need is there. It appears as if the Ministry of Education and Culture is already moving toward that direction. Rewinding the clock could restore confidence in the examination system in the shortest possible time since Zimbabwe has had a long partnership with the University of Cambridge dating back to the colonial period.
To borrow form Jansen Cambridge Overseas Certificate not only serves internal expectations and the state's legitimation needs, but may also reflect a need for the metropole's validation of the quality of Zimbabwe's graduates and, therefore, of the "success" of the state in meeting international standards. It should be noted that this problem of preferring foreign certificates is not peculiar to Zimbabwe only. Studies in Mauritius and Malta have shown that candidates would prefer a certificate from Cambridge or London than a local one BissoondoyalSultana in Bray Though re-establishing the ZIMSEC Cambridge partnership would be a worthwhile move, this would impact negative again on the economy through the repatriation of large sums of money that the country had tried to avoid through localization.
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