BWL 2 - Marketing at Universität Konstanz - Studydrive
nisch sinnvollen Entitäten zusammenfassen. Die vorliegende den im Internet abrufbaren Scorecards Angaben zur Zahl der behandelten Fälle schem Krankenhausnamen wurde in Klammern das Institutskennzeichen. Zusammenfassung. Der Einsatz .. To date the lysimeters have been installed only on ter- .. BMELV () Bundeswaldinventur - alle Ergebnisse und Berichte [online]. Found rechte Klammer repräsentiert den geschlechtsgemittelten. Basel: Gesowip, mawatari.info [Date of access: March 4, ]. Hausendorf, Heiko The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), , Diese Zusammenfassung gibt die Gesprächsentwicklung verkürzt wieder. "(2)" – Zahlenangaben in Klammern markieren Sekunden.
Um, just, I was in me own little world by myself. I just didn't want to be there and I was just thinking about me dad. I just didn't want to be there. I was very, very flat. I was very emotional. Nothing, externally you know I was just the same but internally I was just like breaking down totally internally. But externally I just, I gave nothing away.
I just wanted to pull out. But they wouldn't listen to me, they wouldn't take any notice of me. Anything like that, I thought the coaches weren't being sympathetic to me, how I felt and things like that.
Maybe they did, and also they knew me dad had died and things like that and they just weren't, probably they weren't trained in that. They didn't understand emotions or how people would feel, you know, psychologically and things like that. I just won it and walked off Because I was very emotional that day—inside I was still thinking about this particular girl who split up with me.
I cared for her very much and the way she treated me. She never even saw me [competing]. Sometimes I have good performances when I've got something else on my mind, a tragedy or something like that, or something that's upset me. In contrast, at the time of the initial interview, James denies a central role for his girlfriend Sarah: By the end of the initial interview period, rather than forming a quickly dismissed part of his life, Sarah felt able to join our discussions of James' emotional experiences at various points.
She played the role of a partner who knew, sometimes more than James did, about his affective responses—a synthesis to which James often deferred. I think sometimes, I feel like when you've lost you're gonna think people are not gonna love you any more.
You feel unloved or it's part of rejection. Or some people want to do well and win is because they want to feel loved as well. They feel like when they win, everybody will love them and want to be with them sort of thing. I'm not particularly bothered people liking me or loving me, sort of thing. Um, I don't like feeling rejected where they look at me and walk away. I don't want it to be, "oh James" [said in dismal way]. I don't want that. It's just the rejection. His passionate commitment to his sport was very evident to other athletes, to his partner Sarah, and to me, the principle researcher, in the emotive timbre which characterised his accounts of perceived injustices in the organisation of the sport.
She looked surprised, and then, exhaling sharply, she responded: She described him as the most emotional of the athletes on the National squad. Tanya's perceptions of James as an emotional character were clearly evident in her tales of his responses to behaviours of coaches and other competitors. James is not emotional. He's different to all the rest of his family".
But she also conceded that: He's passionate about it. He loves his sport. He can get emotional when he's not achieving what he expects of himself". Her concerns about his obsession with, and his passion for, the sport and about his negative emotions after losing were apparent in the stories she told. He said that he did not recognise it: I don't really say I've trained myself to be unemotional. From being a really young age, I've always felt, not like a loner, but I've always done me own thing At school I was happy, I was left alone to do me own thing.
So, it's just the way I've always been. My mum said I was very I've got children now, and [Aaron], he's always on the go—I was very much like him. But when I started [his sport], I settled down a lot. I became very quiet—and maybe that's something I needed as a child—to channel my aggression, or all me energy. Ever since I've been doing [his sport], I've always been like I described, I've always been withdrawn.
In the words of James, tunnel vision, emotional withdrawal and unemotional are perhaps more characteristic of his competitive mood states.
She justifies her dismissal of a role for interview data in feminist research on the grounds of the many discrepancies between what people say and do. Indeed, James did not mention specific emotions with enough regularity in his accounts to render "James as the most emotional study participant" an acceptable interpretation.
Yet, in this second tale, insights and observations gained during this initial interview period suggest that James' words are somehow insufficient to describe his emotional experiences in sport. Qualitative research is an umbrella term, yet in sport psychology, it has become synonymous with conducting a series of in-depth, but often highly structured interviews. Participant observation and other fieldwork techniques have tended to be ignored.
In the initial interview period I had followed systematic procedures to analyse interview data. However, at this point I began to question whether this mechanical process was actually beneficial to my understanding of the data.
My co-authors encouraged me to reflect on my adherence to a method-based means of analysis to allow comparison of data both within and between athletes given that it could be criticised as a cataloguing of similarities and differences, rather than an uncovering of systematic relationships. Rather, data became fragmented from both the athlete as an individual within the larger group, and also from the athlete as a whole person.
Reflection and re-appraisal of these limitations led to a realisation that a different approach to the collection and presentation of data was necessary to explore, in a more effective manner, the emotional complexities evident from this initial work with elite athletes.
I discussed my concerns with a colleague who had a wealth of experience in the provision of psychological support for elite athletes and who had worked closely with James. He described James as a passionate individual, but someone able to exert control over his emotions—something he saw as a functional coping strategy for an elite athlete. My colleague asked me why I was looking for evidence when my own hunches, and both his and Tanya's interpretation of James as emotional, were themselves providing evidence.
A realisation suddenly dawned that I was relying too heavily on the power of a transcribed sentence to describe something which, for James, could not be talked about. Although my philosophical stance was fortified, I still struggled to relinquish the primacy I had attributed to tangible data in the form of verbatim transcripts from planned in-depth interviews. I realised, however, that my personal interpretations based on the accounts provided, coupled with understandings based on observation and intuition, had an important role to play.
By recognising, and capitalising on, the subjectivities inherent in an individual account of James, I was confident that different insights could be provided into the life history complexities of elite athletes' emotional experiences. As such, narrative accounts are both socially and historically located. Thus, this final tale will focus on the storied structure of James' life and the ways in which he used these representations to construct a sense of self.
It demonstrates the worth of extended researcher involvement, this enabling both a more informed explication of context and additional evidence on which to base interpretations. However, decisions as to the efficacy of this approach are left to you, the reader. James as a Repressor The final interviews took place some 18 months after the initial interview period and sought to explore the development of James' emotional interpretations. It was recognised that these emotional constructions could be tacit and internalised, rendering retrieval for participants, and de-construction for the researcher a difficult, sometimes impossible task.
Thus, in order to facilitate an informed insight into any pertinent social and cultural influences a more ethnographic approach to data collection was used, involving time spent with James in sport settings, at social events and at home with his family. During the final interviews, the interpretation of James as an unemotional athlete was presented alongside the contrasting tale: James as highly emotional.
As expected, James did not like this latter interpretation. He had striven hard to ensure that he was presented as a unemotional competitor. This resolution is not presented as the reality of James, but as an account that incorporates and coheres both previous tales whilst going beyond both.
The life history account presented in the following section considers rationalisation and repression as active coping strategies used by James to construct a functional meaning perspective on emotion.
I've always been like that. Whatever I do, I do it as best as I can". So HH asked James about the development of his particular work ethic: Me dad was a perfectionist at whatever he did, especially his job as a [job title]. He wasn't just a [job title]—he had knowledge about everything. When I first started working, it used to amaze me, I thought, 'I'll never be as good as him'.
Because he seemed to know everything. Me dad was very professional. He was a perfectionist. He wouldn't let me join in 'cos he was professional—he didn't want me to be involved", and frequently, in relation to his competitive career: When I was competing on the team, all the coaches throughout me career left me to do me own thing because that let me be in control—they were never in control of my training They've always known I've been very well-prepared, they've always known how professional I am, and they've just left me and I've always got the results.
In relation to this job he talked frequently about all three factors: I'm very much a control freak. I have to have things done a certain way. Even with me job now, I like [things] done in a certain way. The warm ups have to be done in a certain way.
And I have to control. And even when I'm in sessions and there's other coaches taking the sessions, I cringe when they're taking it 'cos it's not the way I would have liked to have done that.
I like to be in control. His descriptions were replete with emotions—guilt, fear of failure and stress. Yet, the rationalisation and presentation of an unemotional stance continued, even with evidence of stress-related health problems and marital conflict: Sarah said I've become obsessed with the job—'that's all you ever think about, that's all you ever talk about'. It's just the way that I am. It's like my hair started falling out—with the stress It's started to grow back But I was getting like I couldn't sleep at night.
But now I'm on top of things, I've got everything in place that I wanted to have in place, everything's up and running. Although these emotional needs were rarely expressed, the following statement offers us a rare glimpse of the isolation James experienced as a professional, and the role of his family in mediating this experience: I've got friends in the [sport], but I keep that purely professional.
The people I work with, I train with them, but that's it. I can't still socialise with the coaches. I come home, I've got the family—that's my outlet. Although no specific emotive content was described, his intonation and rate of speech implied a considerable amount of emotion behind his words: I've had a lot of coaches [who've made empty promises] John never contacted me once, to see how the training was going and that. Philip said 'I'm going to come up and see you every month'—he never came up once!
And over time, you start to lose respect for them because they say things and you just know they don't mean it. Sport science support in [his sport's] been hit and miss. They bring somebody in, they do something—very rarely do we get feedback on it and then we don't see this person ever again—maybe six months, or one, two years down the line.
We had a sport psychologist before [Olympics]. And I felt like he'd messed me up. I think he was a bit of show-off [gives example]. I didn't think he was very helpful. That was the only sport psychology I've had. And I picked up more and more injuries. In me [sport] career, I always feel I underachieved. I know people would say I achieved a lot. I was one of the best in the World I don't see that I failed because I got some good results, but I always feel I underachieved.
I think I could have done more. Critical reflection on feeling let down by coaches, the NGB, sport science, and specifically, sport psychology support, had resulted in a determination to not make the same mistakes. With reference to coaching he received, he stated: I don't want to be like that to these players. I don't want to say, 'I'm going to do this, I'm going to do that' and then never do it. You can talk a good training programme—but rather than just talk about it, I'd rather just do it Regarding his relationships with rival athletes, James revealed himself to be uncomfortable with the experience of negative emotions, preferring to attribute his unsociability to his easy-going nature: I don't hate anybody.
If we fell out, that's it, over and done with and I don't bear a grudge. I would say I get on with everybody, me. I'm a very easy-going person. When I came back Sarah will tell you, I mean, I wouldn't even talk to Sarah, wanted nothing to do with Sarah at all.
I was like, 'just stay away from me'. This repression of emotive content was functional in some competitive situations. However, it was also shown to possess dysfunctional qualities in relation to his personal work orientation and, more recently, to his family life. Emotions can even be treated using psychological interventions.
Yet, as this study demonstrates, this approach does not always work. In initial data collection and analysis, the ingrained positivism which characterises research in sport psychology SPARKES, will be very evident to readers who operate within paradigms more commonly associated with qualitative research. These initial stages revealed a plethora of social factors that provided much of the context for athletes' emotional interpretations.
However, the third tale of James showed the partial and often inadequate view gained from using accepted methods to look at emotional complexities.
If considered in isolation from the influence of the social sphere, these findings are not without value, but reductionist and incomplete. However, the limitations of emotion measurement using self-report measures are especially applicable to athletes with repressive tendencies. Yet, these criticisms may also apply to the traditional qualitative research approaches endorsed by the sport psychology research community where the spoken word of the participant is viewed as the cornerstone of knowledge gained through this type of inquiry.
In this respect, James responded to a question about self-presentation by stating: I've not told you any lies. I mean I'm one of them people—I just say things as it is sort of thing, I don't make things up. I just say it as it is, at the time". Thus, although my acquaintance with James was longitudinal over the course of three years, his statement provides a timely reminder that qualitative data describe situations that occurred in a particular social and historical context.
As researchers and practitioners, we need to be aware of the danger of ignoring contextual influences. In so doing, we create a meaning perspective that can be falsely generalised across times, settings and individuals—an interpretation that still leaves the individual athlete without effective strategies for dealing with these life history complexities.
We are not seeking to condemn previous research endeavours, but to create space for other forms of work and for approaches to research that are perhaps more in synch with our practices as providers of support to individual athletes. As sport psychologists we listen to athletes and interpret these words in the light of our observations. So, in terms of research that looks to inform our understanding and practices: Firstly, consideration of social and cultural influences on the athlete's interpretations has potential to both clarify and enhance the theoretical basis of emotion and its effects on performance.
Secondly, the dynamic nature of emotional constructions need to be considered, along with the processes of social change which are seen as mediators of these interpretations. The three tales of James reveal emotions as multifaceted. James reported both physiological and psychological factors, yet, there was evidence of social dimensions that often influenced emotional constructions.
The social culture of emotional experiences relates to the "persisting patterns of social relations that establish situational contingencies and constraints, motivating behaviour and instigating emotion" GORDON,p.
In order to understand the influence of social factors on these multifaceted, dynamic experiences, we need more than a catalogue of mediating factors. Social factors play an important role in shaping the athlete's emotional responses and are thus a very necessary consideration if we seek to better understand the life history complexities of their emotional experiences.
In this respect, the adoption of a constructivist approach to emotion research has potential to both clarify and enhance the theoretical basis of emotion and its effects on performance. On several occasions we have spoken about the dynamic nature of athletes' constructions of their emotional experiences.
In saying this we allude to the complexities of storytelling in relation to truth: Method guidelines, no matter how rigorously applied, cannot help account for differences in the judgements of researchers.
Indeed, addressing the existence of multiple interpretations by representing the plurality of the whole, rather than a singular core identity, can be further supported when we consider that participants are themselves constructing a life through their tales. Using words, links and causes are created, which for them, provide a rational explanation of their behaviours. For WOLCOTT a solution to the motivational complexities that underpin human behaviour may be to present multiple or cumulative theories: The distinction between the life as told and the life as lived needs other forms of data collection and a focus on interdisciplinary concerns.
However, it should be recognised that data collected in different ways are in different forms and thus, the burden of objectivity cannot be placed on the data. Instead, each piece affords only a partial view of the whole picture. Rather than relying on the notion of a fixed point or superior explanation, qualitative research recognises multiple possible interpretations BARBOUR, of most complex situations. These concerns were also echoed by Janet MORSE, editor of Qualitative Health Research, earlier this year and present a powerful call to action for those working in health-related fields: We learn of the emotional responses and their reported behaviours as they are recalled by the participants Observational research, on the other hand, provides us with different information that informs and complements the interview studies At the moment—and reflecting trends in all qualitative research—our research efforts are imbalanced, dominated by studies that use some form of interview method".
Thus, questions need to be asked about our responsibilities to the athletes with whom we work as sport psychologists. Many of our professional strategies, for both research and psychological support, make little allowance for social, cultural and developmental influences on the athlete's emotional interpretations.
In highlighting a moral as well as a performance vision she spoke of the requirement for standards of professional practice that safeguard the health and welfare of the athlete in both coaching and scientific support of athletes. We estimate that most coaches are aware that broader factors in their athletes' lives may influence emotional states and performance.
If sport psychology does not itself acknowledge this truth, it becomes less able to help athletes and coaches improve performance. This would allow our work as psychologists to reflect an insightful analysis of social and cultural influences on the individual's emotional responses and interpretations.
The third tale presented in this paper may well be of more value to a coach.
Knowing of James' repressive tendencies, work could potentially be adapted in the light of that knowledge. Stated more generally, in a particular coaching situation, the idiosyncratic is at least as important as the nomothetic, and sometimes more so.Klammer auflösen; + Klammern; - Klammern
Indeed, the attempts to predict and generalise in a utilitarian fashion are often products of reasoning based on experience, intuition and insight resulting from interactions of personal subjectivities with athletic clients.
Indeed, this adaptive approach has received recognition as an appropriate model of good practice HARDY et al. In their work they illustrate the different interpretations that two researchers can bring to the same data.
In contrast, James' tales highlight different interpretations that can be reached dependent on methods used and their underpinning social theoretical positions. James preferred to present himself as "unemotional".
This self-concept framed many of his discussions of performance states.
- Onemi sismos online dating
- Die epiphytische Vegetation Amerikas by Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper
Using these additional insights allowed us to construct James as an emotional competitor. However, although perhaps a more accurate portrayal of James, this interpretation is dissonant with his existing self-concept and offers little useful information on which to base our interventions. In the third and final tale, we acknowledge these perspectives and integrate all of the available data into a more rounded view of James.
James as a repressor was used as an explanatory mechanism in the exploration of his obsessive approach to work. James as a repressor is both acceptable to James, and an interpretation that draws on James' experiences, as well as our theoretical and practitioner backgrounds. His repression of emotive content was functional in some competitive situations.
The reason is that imposing a rigid definition would appear to be the antithesis of constructivism. We mean something inherently simple—a stance that seeks to consider emotion in a wider sense—attempting to construct explanations but recognising the social influences on these very constructions. In this article, we have attempted to explore some of the complexities of emotions experienced by James.
In so doing, we have drawn on both social and psychological theory. Some of the literature reviewed drew on structural explanations of behaviour. For example, the explanations of repression used in Section 5. Part of a constructivist stance is the recognition that all explanations of the world could be otherwise if social permission was granted i.
Applied sport psychology now forms a major strand of the elite athlete's scientific support. Qualitative methods provide opportunities to explore context in socially constructed and organised environments like sport.
In addition to the meaning perspectives of both athlete and coach, we can discover how these interact in given situations by exploring the social and psychological facets of the competitive environment. Indeed, for qualitative research to further our understanding, there is a need for studies based on coded interview data and those using greater levels of participant observation and intuitive insight. Talking with athletes, coaches and others involved in the sport setting is complemented by our observations of interactions and practices and thus, informs our professional decisions.
In contrast, qualitative research in sport psychology has evolved to represent a practice where adherence to technical solutions is believed to enable effective segregation of subjective observation from more objective spoken words. For practitioners, this segregation is neither possible, nor desirable. Special thanks are due to James, his family and the other athletes—all of whom were involved in this study for an extended period of time.
Personal thanks are owed to the colleague whose insight helped HH in her analysis of material gathered from time spent with James. References Annesi, James J.
Three-dimensional state anxiety recall: Implications for individual zone of optimal functioning research and application. The Sport Psychologist, 11, Checklists for improving rigour in qualitative research: A case of the tail wagging the dog?
British Medical Journal, When audiences interfere with self-deceptive strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, Bezooyen, Renee van Characteristics and recognizability of vocal expressions of emotion.
Theoretical and methodological implications for health and pathology. Implications for personality, psychopathology, and health pp. University of Chicago Press. Protection and professionalism in sport science and coaching. Becoming a mature student: Gendered narratives of the self. Gender, emotion, and the family.
Is anxiety really facilitative? Reaction to the myth that cognitive anxiety always impairs sport performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, Do anxious swimmers swim slower?
Chana jor garam online dating
Reexamining the elusive anxiety-performance relationship. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, Relationships to socioemotional adjustment, academic performance, and self-image. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, Repression-sensitization and the verbal elaboration of experience. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, Beyond boredom and anxiety. The psychology of optimal experience. Emphasizing the experience of the athlete in sport psychology research.
The Sport Psychologist, 10, Scallion durch seine innere Sicht visualisiert hatte. Atlanta, Georgia, wird ein neuer Seehafen. Scallion sagte vorher, dass die Erdmagnetpole zwei Mal westlich abkippen: Wambach wurde derzeit in ihrer Forschung und ihren Experimenten begleitet von Dr.
Die faszinierenden Aufzeichnungen dieser Zukunftsprojektionen unter Hypnose wird in Dr. Die Bundesregierung baut bereits zeitliche Umsiedlungszentren weiter im Inland auf, und jeder spricht von Wiederaufbau. Dann realisierte ich, dass der Himmel nun komplett dunkel war. Es wurde euch wieder und wieder gesagt, dass die Erde in ihrer Achse kippen wird, und so wird es sein. Was jetzt der unfruchtbare Norden ist, wird halbtropisch werden. Die Himmel der Erde werden fantastisch sein.
Das ist nichts, verglichen mit diesem Regen. Vielleicht wird es vierzig Monate andauern. Es wird nicht wieder erkennbar sein. Ihr befindet euch nicht nur am Ende eines Diejenigen, die nicht auf der Erde bleiben wollen, werden auf einen anderen Planeten gebracht in einem anderen Teil der Galaxie, wo die karmischen Lektionen und die Evolution der Dritten Dimension weiter bestehen wird.
Derzeit bewegt ihr euch in das Photonenband, da ihr das Fischezeitalter verlasst und in das Wassermannzeitalter eintretet. Eure Sonne ist mit den Plejaden mittels einer Spirale von Sternenlicht, das von Alcyone aus scheint, verbunden. Euer Sonnensystem verbringt die meiste Zeit in der Galaktischen Nacht — Betrachtet euer eigenes Sonnensystem als eine Scheibe mit der Sonne in der Mitte und all den Planeten um sie herumwirbelnd.
Die Erde befand sich zuerst in dem Photonenband vom Eventuell wird der Erde gesamter Weltraumweg in dieser Flutwelle des Lichts durch die Winter-Sonnenwende in eingetaucht sein. Eventuell wird das gesamte Sonnensystem total in dem Photonenband sein.
Und was ist die treibende Kraft hinter diesen weltweiten Ereignissen? Unser Sonnensystem lief innerhalb einer Jahre dauernden Periode durch ein Band extrem hoher Energie.
Sie erreichten dies durch eine genetische Manipulation, Furcht und Dominanz zu erzeugen. In der Zwischenzeit musste sich die Menschheit einer langen und schmerzhaften Periode spiritueller Entwicklung unterziehen.
Durch die Betonung eines einzigen Wortes kann sie die ganze Natur ihres Seins transformieren. Die Natur ist ihre Natur. So ist es eine bestimmte Zeit, wenn der Planet durch einen Transformationszyklus geht.
Es gibt ebenfalls Millionen junge "aufsteigende Seelen", die gerade ihren langen Weg ihrer Entwicklung beginnen, ein bewusstes menschliches Wesen zu werden, und die hierher kamen, um ihre ersten Grundlektionen zu lernen, nachdem sie von dem Tierreich aufgestiegen waren.
Sie sind intelligentes Leben! Die Menschheit beeinflusst das Mineralreich durch ihre eigenen Gedankenformen, durch ihre eigenen Verhaltensmuster. So seid bewusst, dass dieser Moment der Wiedergeburt kommt. Ich bin kein Weltraum-Wesen von einem anderen Planeten. Wir sind Erbauer innerhalb dieses Sonnenreiches. Ich sehe sie weinen,