LacusCurtius • Diodorus Siculus — Book V Chapters 19‑40
Diodori Bibliotheca historica Publication date Publisher Book digitized by Google and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user tpb. Part of an English translation of Diodorus. II) Diodorus Siculus 6 But dates much larger than these can be seen growing in Arabia and. Diodorus of Sicily, with an English translation by C.H. Oldfather [and others]. by Diodorus, Siculus. Publication date Publisher London Heinemann.
For being exempt from any service to the state the philosophers are neither the masters nor the servants of the others. Moreover, they furnish great services to the whole body of the Indians, since they are invited at the beginning of the year to the Great Synod and foretell to the multitude droughts and rains, as well as the favourable blowing of winds, and epidemics, and whatever else can be of aid to their auditors. And the philosopher who has erred 15 in his predictions is subjected to no other punishment than obloquy and keeps silence for the remainder of his life.
These, being exempt from war duties and every other service to the state, devote their entire time to labour in the fields; and no enemy, coming upon a farmer in the country, would think of doing him injury, but they look upon the farmers as common benefactors and therefore refrain from every injury to them. And the farmers spend their lives upon the land with their children and wives and refrain entirely from coming down into the city.
And since they are practised in this calling and follow it with zest they are bringing India under cultivation, although it still abounds in many wild beasts and birds of every kind, which eat up the seeds sown by the farmers. And they are not only exempt from paying taxes but they even receive rations from the royal treasury.
Diodorus Siculus - Wikisource, the free online library
And the maintenance of the whole multitude of the soldiers and of the horses and elephants for use in war is met out of the royal treasury. These men inquire into and inspect everything that is going on throughout India, and report back to the kings or, in case the state to which they are attached has no king, to the magistrates.
Furthermore, no one is allowed to marry a person of another caste or to follow another calling or trade, as, for instance, that one who is a soldier should become a farmer, or an artisan should become a philosopher. Nor does this animal cover the female in a peculiar manner, as some say, but in the same way as horses and all other four-footed beasts; and their period of gestation is in some cases sixteen months at the least and in other cases eighteen months at the most.
The span of life for most of them is about that of men who attain the greatest age, though some which have reached the highest age have lived two hundred years.
This people originally possessed little territory, but later, as they gradually increased in power, they seized much territory by reason of their deeds of might and their bravery and advanced their nation to great leadership and renown. With her Zeus lay begat a son whose name was Scythes. This son became more famous than any who had preceded him and called the folk Scythians after his own name.
Now among the descendants of this king there were two brothers who were distinguished for their valour, the one named Palus and the other Napes. Consequently distinguished women have been the authors of many great deeds, not in Scythia alone, but also in the territory bordering upon it.
Of these women one, who possessed the royal authority, was remarkable for her prowess in war and her bodily strength, and gathering together an army of women she drilled it in the use of arms and subdued in war some of the neighbouring peoples. Laws were also established by her, by virtue of which she led forth the women to the contests of war, but upon the men she fastened humiliation and slavery.
For instance, she exercised in the chase the maidens from their earliest girlhood and drilled them daily in the arts of war, and she also established magnificent festivals both to Ares and to the Artemis who is called Tauropolus.
She also campaigned on the other side 29 and subdued a large part of Asia and extended her power as far as Syria. This island, the account continues, is situated in the north and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind Boreas blows; and the island is both fertile and productive of every crop, and since it has an unusually temperate climate it produces two harvests each year.
Leto 34 was born on this island, and for that reason Apollo is honoured among them above all other gods; and the inhabitants are looked upon as priests of Apollo, after a manner, since daily they praise this god continuously in song and honour him exceedingly. And there is also on the island both a magnificent sacred precinct of Apollo and a notable temple which is adorned with many votive offerings and is spherical in shape.
The myth also relates that certain Greeks visited the Hyperboreans and left behind them there costly votive offerings bearing inscriptions in Greek letters. They say also that the moon, as viewed from this island, appears to be but a little distance from the earth and to have upon it prominences, like those of the earth, which are visible to the eye.
Powerful men, therefore, should avoid evil deeds in order to avoid receiving this reproach from posterity. Diodorus claims that the central subjects of the book are negative examples, who demonstrate the truth of these remarks. The book is again divided into Greek and Sicilian narratives. The Greek narrative covers the thirty tyrants of Athens, the establishment and souring of the Spartan hegemony17,38Cyrus the Younger 's attempt to seize the Persian throne with the aid of the Ten ThousandAgesilaus ' invasion of Persian Asia Minorthe Boeotian War, The Sicilian narrative focusses on Dionysios the Elder's establishment of his tyranny in Sicily, 18his second war with the Carthaginians,and his invasion of southern Italy Fairly brief notes mention Roman affairs year by year, including the war with Veii 93and the Gallic Sack Ephorus and Timaeus are assumed to have still been Diodorus' sources.
Firstly, he announces the importance of parrhesia free speech for the overall moral goal of his work, insofar as he expects his frank praise of good people and criticism of bad ones will encourage his readers to behave morally. Secondly, he declares that the fall of the Spartan empirewhich is described in this book, was caused by their cruel treatment of their subjects.
Sacks considers this idea about the fall of empires to be a core theme of Diodorus' work, motivated by his own experience as a subject of Rome.
Diodorus of Sicily, with an English translation by C.H. Oldfather [and others]
Diodorus' main source is generally believed to have been Ephorusbut through him? It then transitions into praise of Philip IIwhose involvement in the Third Sacred War and resulting rise are the main subjects of the book. The initial sources for the main narrative was probably Ephorus, but his account came to an end in BC, and Diodorus' sources after that point are disputed.
Possibilities include DemophilusDiyllusDuris of Samos and Theopompus ; contradictions in his account suggest that he was following multiple sources simultaneously and did not succeed in combining them perfectly.
Despite a promise in the brief prologue to discuss other contemporary events, it does not contain any side-narratives, although, unlike other accounts of Alexander, it does mention Macedonian activities in Greece during his expedition.
Owing to its length, the book is split into two halves, the first running down to the Battle of Gaugamela and the second part continuing until his death Diodorus' sources for the story of Alexander are much debated.
Diodori Bibliotheca historica
Sources of information include Aristobulus of CassandreiaCleitarchusOnesicritus and Nearchusbut it is not clear that he used these directly. The account is largely based on Hieronymus of Cardia. The narrative of the book continues the account of the Diadochi, recounting the Second and Third Wars of the Diadochi; the Babylonian War is completely unmentioned.
Interwoven in this narrative is the rise to power of Agathocles of Syracuse and the beginning of his war with Carthage. It is disputed whether this latter narrative strand is based on Callias of SyracuseTimaeus of Tauromeniumor Duris of Samos. Diodorus criticises the practice as inappropriate to the genre, but acknowledges that in moderation such speeches can add variety and serve a didactic purpose.
The book is devoted to two parallel narratives, one describing Agathocles' ultimately unsuccessful invasion of Carthage, and the other devoted to the continued wars of the Diadochi, which are dominated by Antigonus Monophthalmus and Demetrius Poliorcetes. The only significant side narrative is the account of Cleonymus of Sparta 's wars in Italy For booksDiodorus drew on the history of Polybiuswhich largely survives and can be compared against Diodorus' text, though he may also have used Philinus of Agrigentum and other lost historians.
Books 32 to 38 or 39 probably had Poseidonius as their source. The faults of Diodorus arise partly from the nature of the undertaking, and the awkward form of annals into which he has thrown the historical portion of his narrative. He shows none of the critical faculties of the historian, merely setting down a number of unconnected details.
His narrative contains frequent repetitions and contradictions, is without colouring, and monotonous; and his simple diction, which stands intermediate between pure Attic and the colloquial Greek of his time, enables us to detect in the narrative the undigested fragments of the materials which he employed. As damaging as this sounds, other more contemporary classical scholars are likely to go even further.
Other battles of the same peoples by the Cephisus and Coroneia and victory of the Boeotians chap. How Phalaecus, having succeeded to the command, conducted the war disgracefully, and was driven into exile chaps.LP0008 - Theseus - Diodorus Siculus' Library of History -
How the peoples of the Peloponnese broke out in civil strife chap. How Philip, having won the Chalcidian cities to his side, razed their most important one chaps. Investigation of the expenditure of the sacred monies and punishment of the pillagers chaps. How those who took refuge at the shrine of Apollo, Phocians all, five hundred in number, were miraculously to the last man burned to death chap. How the Phocian war was concluded chaps. How those who had participated with the Phocians in the pillaging of the shrine were all punished by some sort of divine agency chaps.
The voyage of Timoleon to Sicily and his fortunes up to his death chaps. Philip's battle with the Athenians at Chaeroneia and the defeat of the Athenians chaps. How the Greeks chose Philip as their generalissimo chap. How Philip was assassinated as he was about to cross into Asia chaps. Whenever the natural pattern of events itself harmonizes with the task of the historian, from that point on he must not deviate at all from this principle. Having subdued in war the men who had been plundering the shrine at Delphi and having brought aid to the oracle, he won a seat in the Amphictyonic Council, and because of his reverence for the gods received as his prize in the contest, after the defeat of the Phocians, the votes which had been theirs.
For King Philip excelled in shrewdness in the art of war, courage, and brilliance of personality. During their term of office Philip, the son of Amyntas and father of Alexander who defeated the Persians in war, succeeded to the Macedonian throne in the following manner. Inasmuch as both students showed natural ability and diligence they proved to be superior in deeds of valour.
Of the two, Epameinondas underwent the most rigorous tests and battles, and invested his fatherland almost miraculously with the leadership of Hellas, while Philip, availing himself of the same initial training, achieved no less fame than Epameinondas. But when he was defeated in a great battle by the Illyrians 9 and fell in the action, Philip his brother, who had escaped from his detention as a hostage, succeeded to the kingdom, 10 now in a bad way.
Similarly, the Athenians too, being hostile to Philip, were endeavouring to restore Argaeus 13 to the throne and had dispatched Mantias as general with three thousand hoplites and a considerable naval force. For instance, when he observed that the Athenians were centring all their ambition upon recovering Amphipolis and for this reason were trying to bring Argaeus back to the throne, he voluntarily withdrew from the city, after first making it autonomous.
In similar fashion he prevented the return of Pausanias by winning over with gifts the king 17 who was on the point of attempting his restoration.
Now Philip by his success in this first battle encouraged the Macedonians to meet the succeeding contests with greater temerity. During their term of office Philip sent ambassadors to Athens and persuaded the assembly to make peace with him on the ground that he abandoned for all time any claim to Amphipolis. Accordingly, having conducted an expedition into Paeonia and defeated the barbarians in a battle, he compelled the tribe to acknowledge allegiance to the Macedonians.
So, having quickly called an assembly and exhorted his soldiers for the war in a fitting speech, he led an expedition into the Illyrian territory, having no less than ten thousand foot-soldiers and six hundred horsemen.
Amplifying Memory: The Bibliotheca Historica of Diodorus Siculus - Oxford Scholarship
And at first for a long while the battle was evenly poised because of the exceeding gallantry displayed on both sides, and as many were slain and still more wounded, the fortune of battle vacillated first one way then the other, being constantly swayed by the valorous deeds of the combatants; but later as the horsemen pressed on from the flank and rear and Philip with the flower of his troops fought with true heroism, the mass of the Illyrians was compelled to take hastily to flight.
In Sicily Dionysius the Younger, tyrant of the Syracusans, who had succeeded to the realm 26 in the period preceding this but was indolent and much inferior to his father, pretended because of his lack of enterprise to be peacefully inclined and mild of disposition. During their term of office Dion, son of Hipparinus and the most distinguished of the Syracusans, escaped from Sicily 31 and by his nobility of spirit set free the Syracusans and the other Sicilian Greeks in the following manner.
So, fearing him, Dionysius decided to get him out of the way by arresting him on a charge involving the death penalty. Although no important pitched battle was fought to a finish, yet when the island had been devastated by the intestinal warfare and many men had been slain on both sides, at long last admonished by the disasters, the parties came to an agreement and made peace with one another. The two generals on sailing into Chios found that allies had arrived to assist the Chians from Byzantium, Rhodes, and Cos, and also from Mausolus, 41 the tyrant of Caria.
They then drew up their forces and began to besiege the city both by land and by sea. Now Chares, who commanded the infantry force, advanced against the walls by land and began a struggle with the enemy who poured out on him from the city; but Chabrias, sailing up to the harbour, fought a severe naval engagement and was worsted when his ship was shattered by a ramming attack. By bringing siege-engines against the walls 46 and launching severe and continuous assaults, he succeeded in breaching a portion of the wall with his battering rams, whereupon, having entered the city through the breach and struck down many of his opponents, he obtained the mastery of the city and exiled those who were disaffected toward him, but treated the rest considerately.