Language of the birds - Wikipedia
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His music softened the hearts of Hades and Persephonewho agreed to allow Eurydice to return with him to earth on one condition: He set off with Eurydice following, and, in his anxiety, as soon as he reached the upper world, he turned to look at her, forgetting that both needed to be in the upper world, and she vanished for the second time, but now forever.
The story in this form belongs to the time of Virgilwho first introduces the name of Aristaeus by the time of Virgil's Georgicsthe myth has Aristaeus chasing Eurydice when she was bitten by a serpent and the tragic outcome. In fact, Plato's representation of Orpheus is that of a coward, as instead of choosing to die in order to be with the one he loved, he instead mocked the gods by trying to go to Hades to bring her back alive. Since his love was not "true"—he did not want to die for love—he was actually punished by the gods, first by giving him only the apparition of his former wife in the underworld, and then by being killed by women.
In Ovid 's account, however, Eurydice's death by a snake bite is incurred while she was dancing with naiads on her wedding day. Virgil wrote in his poem that Dryads wept from Epirus and Hebrus up to the land of the Getae north east Danube valley and even describes him wandering into Hyperborea and Tanais ancient Greek city in the Don river delta  due to his grief.
The story of Eurydice may actually be a late addition to the Orpheus myths. In particular, the name Eurudike "she whose justice extends widely" recalls cult-titles attached to Persephone.
According to the theories of poet Robert Gravesthe myth may have been derived from another Orpheus legend, in which he travels to Tartarus and charms the goddess Hecate. More directly, the story of Orpheus is similar to the ancient Greek tales of Persephone captured by Hades and similar stories of Adonis captive in the underworld.
However, the developed form of the Orpheus myth was entwined with the Orphic mystery cults and, later in Rome, with the development of Mithraism and the cult of Sol Invictus. One early morning he went to the oracle of Dionysus at Mount Pangaion  to salute his god at dawn, but was ripped to shreds by Thracian Maenads for not honoring his previous patron Dionysus and buried in Pieria. Yet, many felt a desire to be joined with the poet, and many grieved at rejection.
Indeed, he was the first of the Thracian people to transfer his affection to young boys and enjoy their brief springtime, and early flowering this side of manhood.
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Enraged, the women tore him to pieces during the frenzy of their Bacchic orgies. The Muses also gathered up the fragments of his body and buried them at Leibethra  below Mount Olympuswhere the nightingales sang over his grave.
After the river Sys flooded  Leibethra, the Macedonians took his bones to Dion. Orpheus' soul returned to the underworld, to the fields of the Blessed, where he was reunited at last with his beloved Eurydice.
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Another legend places his tomb at Dion,  near Pydna in Macedon. In another version of the myth, Orpheus travels to Aornum in ThesprotiaEpirus to an old oracle for the dead. In the end Orpheus commits suicide from his grief unable to find Eurydice. Orphism religion A number of Greek religious poems in hexameters were attributed to Orpheus, as they were to similar miracle-working figures, like BakisMusaeusAbarisAristeasEpimenidesand the Sibyl.
Of this vast literature, only two works survived whole: Earlier Orphic literature, which may date back as far as the sixth century BC, survives only in papyrus fragments or in quotations. Some of the earliest fragments may have been composed by Onomacritus. Plato in particular tells of a class of vagrant beggar-priests who would go about offering purifications to the rich, a clatter of books by Orpheus and Musaeus in tow.
Fragments of the poem are quoted making it "the most important new piece of evidence about Greek philosophy and religion to come to light since the Renaissance". The historian William Mitford wrote in that the very earliest form of a higher and more cohesive ancient Greek religion was manifest in the Orphic poems.
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Guthrie wrote that Orpheus was the founder of mystery religions and the first to reveal to men the meanings of the initiation rites. Early examples include the Breton lai Sir Orfeo from the early 13th century and musical interpretations like Jacapo Peri 's Euridicethough titled with his wife's name, the libretto is based entirely upon books X and XI of Ovid 's Metamorphoses and therefore Orpheus' viewpoint is predominant.
The Mask of Orpheus — and The Corridor A Masque by John Robertson. It debuted in The tholos is characteristic of Mycenaean elite tomb construction. The royal burials uncovered by Heinrich Schliemann in remain the most famous of the Mycenaean tombs. With grave goods indicating they were in use from about to BC, these were enclosed by walls almost two and a half centuries later—an indication that these ancestral dead continued to be honored. An exemplary stele depicting a man driving a chariot suggests the esteem in which physical prowess was held in this culture.
Later Greeks thought of the Mycenaean period as an age of heroesas represented in the Homeric epics. Greek hero cult centered on tombs. Archaic and Classical Greece[ edit ] Funeral monuments from the Kerameikos cemetery at Athens After BC, Greeks began to bury their dead in individual graves rather than group tombs.
Athenshowever, was a major exception; the Athenians normally cremated their dead and placed their ashes in an urn. This greater simplicity in burial coincided with the rise of democracy and the egalitarian military of the hoplite phalanxand became pronounced during the early Classical period 5th century BC.
A dying person might prepare by arranging future care for the children, praying, and assembling family members for a farewell.
When a third onlooker is present, the figure may be their adult child. Women played a major role in funeral rites. They were in charge of preparing the body, which was washed, anointed and adorned with a wreath.
The mouth was sometimes sealed with a token or talisman, referred to as " Charon's obol " if a coin was used, and explained as payment for the ferryman of the dead to convey the soul from the world of the living to the world of the dead. After the body was prepared, it was laid out for viewing on the second day.