The s Balkan Wars in Key Dates
Re: Dating in Serbia do's and don'ts. Nov 22, , PM. Oh I see. Respect the family and culture is the main thing. If you've not been to Belgrade before. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (–) Croatia (–) Slovenia (–) On the same date, the Serbs responded by declaring the independence of the Republika Srpska and laying siege to Sarajevo which marked the .. Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia. Americans struggle to understand the complicated breakup of Yugoslavia — especially The Balkan Peninsula has always been a crossroads of cultures. it's tricky to get an impartial take on the current situation, or even on historical “facts.
The move was fiercely opposed by Belgrade-backed Bosnian Serbs, who made up more than 30 percent of the population. While Serbs boycotted the vote, 60 percent of Bosnia's citizens voted for independence. Bosnia won international recognition a day later.
Soon after, Bosnian Croats turned against the republic's Muslims.
The city'sresidents struggled to get basic necessities and at least 10, were killed by sniping and shelling by Serbs. By May Bosnian Serbs controlled two-thirds of Bosnia. An estimated 20, women, mostly Muslims, were raped. Described by two international courts as genocide, the massacre was the worst mass killing in Europe since the end of World War II.
The fighting ended in after an week bombing campaign by NATO, by which time about 13, people had been killed and hundreds of thousands had fled their homes. Kosovo declared independence ina move Serbia refuses to recognize. Slovenia and Croatia disagreed with Milosevic's policies, and both regions declared independence in June Milosevic sent troops in, and thousands of people died before the cease-fire.
The European Community granted recognition to the republics, and two other regions of the former Yugoslavia— Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzogovina—called for independence. Milosevic refused to recognize the sovereignty of any of these states, and on 27 April declared Serbia and Montenegro the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. They officially withdrew troops from Bosnia, but many of these forces were Bosnian Serbs, who stayed on of their own accord and continued to perpetrate horrible violence against the Muslims in the area.
In May the U. Security Council responded by passing economic sanctions against Yugoslavia. In a peace treaty was negotiated between Yugoslavia and Croatia, and Bosnia was divided between Serbs and Croat Muslims. In that same year, Milosevic was defeated in a presidential election but refused to accept the result. Protests and demonstrations ensued, which the government put down using violence. Elections were held again the following year, and Milosevic won. In March the largely Albanian province of Kosovo began fighting for independence.
Milosevic's government proceeded to destroy villages and kill thousands of Albanians in the region. In June a peace treaty was worked out between Yugoslavia and NATO, but the underlying causes of the conflict were not resolved, and violence continues in the region, which remains under the temporary control of NATO and the U.
A presidential election in September resulted in a victory for opposition candidate Vojislav Kostunica, but Milosevic refused to admit that he had lost.
Through the Eyes of a Gen Y: Dating in Serbia
Protests ensued; Milosevic's troops attempted to put them down, but eventually troops joined the crowds in agitating for the president's ouster. Milosevic was forced to admit defeat. The European Union responded by lifting certain sanctions against Yugoslavia, including bans on commercial flights and oil shipments. Kostunica supports a free-market economy and increased autonomy for Montenegro, and acknowledges the possibility of self-determination for Kosovo. While his stance is much more moderate than Milosevic's, Kostunica has refused to advocate the prosecution of his predecessor as a war criminal.
The people of Yugoslavia identify primarily with their region. Serbs are more likely than other groups to subscribe to an identity as Yugoslav; many minorities see this identity as attempting to subsume significant regional, ethnic, and religious differences.
Montenegrins also have a tradition of Pan-Slavism, which led them to remain with Serbia even as other republics were demanding independence. However, Montenegro has had differences with Serbia, particularly over policy in Bosnia, Croatia, and, most recently, Kosovo. Religion also plays an important role in national identity, in particular for Muslims, the largest religious minority and the majority in certain areas, such as Kosovo and parts of Bosnia.
The Balkan Peninsula is a hodgepodge of cultures and ethnicities.
Through the Eyes of a Gen Y: Dating in Serbia :: Balkan Insight
While most of the people are of Slavic origin, their histories diverged under the varying influences of different governments, religions, and cultures. The north has a strong influence from Hungary, and the south displays more remnants of Turkish culture. The union of these different cultures under a repressive regime makes for a volatile situation; for this reason the entire region has been referred to as the "Balkan tinderbox.
The Serb government has brutally suppressed virtually all minorities to consolidate Serb power. Under Milosevic, a policy of ethnic cleansing has attempted to rid the country of Croat Muslims in Bosnia and ethnic Albanians in Kosovo when these groups have agitated for self-rule; the results have been ongoing violence and the oppression of ethnic minorities.
Yugoslavia also has one of the world's largest Gypsy populations, who are also treated with intolerance. In the s there was a movement among Yugoslav Gypsies for separate nationhood, but it never materialized and eventually lost steam.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Belgrade is home to the old royal palace of Yugoslavia, as well as current government buildings. Many of these are in an area called New Belgrade, on the outskirts of the city. Belgrade also boasts centuries-old Radio B92 is the only station that preserves its own network of correspondents.
Due in part to its advantageous location at the junction of two rivers, the city has a history of possession by various foreign powers: It has been captured sixty times by the Romans, Huns, Turks, and Germans, among others and destroyed thirty-eight times.
Some were later restored, but the recent civil war has again devastated the city. The largest city in Montenegro is Titograd known as Podgorica before Tito renamed it in It is an industrial center.
Much of the architecture in Titograd reflects the Turkish influence of the Ottoman Empire. Pristina, with a population of about , is the capital of the province of Kosovo. It served as capital of the Serbian Empire before the invasion of the Ottoman Turks in the fourteenth century. The city's architecture, exhibiting both Serbian and Turkish influence, testifies to its long history.
Novi Sad, a city with a population of , in the northern province of Vojvodina, boasts a fortress from the Roman era, as well as a university and the Serbian National Theater.
It also is a manufacturing center. Subotica, with a population of about , is Serbia's northernmost city and serves as an important center for commerce, agriculture, and intellectual activity. In the cities, most people live in apartment buildings, although there are also older houses. In the countryside most houses are modest buildings of wood, brick, or stone. They are generally surrounded by courtyards enclosed by walls or fences for privacy. Even in rural areas, houses tend to be relatively close together.
Some villages in Kosovo are laid out in a unique square pattern. The houses have watchtowers, and are surrounded by mud walls for protection from enemies.
Serbia is famous for its religious architecture: Huge, beautiful churches and monasteries are not just in the big cities, but also are scattered throughout the nation. Some date back centuries; others, such as the Church of Saint George in the town of Topola, were built in the twentieth century. They are awe-inspiring structures adorned with elaborate mosaics, frescoes, and marble carvings.
Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Staples of the Serbian diet are bread, meat, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Breakfast generally consists of eggs, meat, and bread, with a dairy spread called kajmak. Lunch is the main meal of the day and usually is eaten at about three in the afternoon. A light supper is eaten at about 8: Peppers are a common ingredient in many dishes.
The national dish, called cevapcici, is small meat patties, highly spiced and prepared on a grill. Pita a type of strudel and palacinke crepes are popular desserts.
Coffee is prepared in the Turkish style, boiled to a thick, potent liquid and served in small cups. A fruit concoction called sok is another favorite drink.
For alcohol there is beer and a fruit brandy called rakija. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. The Christmas feast is an elaborate occasion.
On Christmas Eve, people eat Lenten foods no meat or dairy products and drink hot toddies warm brandy with honey. The following day, the meal generally consists of roast pork and a round bread called cesnica. On Krsna Slava, a family's patron saint's day, another round bread, called kolac, is served, as well as zito, a boiled, sweetened wheat dish. For Easter, boiled eggs are a traditional food. The shells are dyed and decorated in elaborate patterns.
The collapse of the Yugoslav Republic in wreaked havoc on the economy of the region. Trade links were interrupted, and ongoing warfare has destroyed many physical assets. Economic sanctions further stunted the growth of the economy during these years. There is currently an unemployment rate of 30 percent. Industry accounts for 50 percent of the GDP and employs a large number of people in the fabrication of machines, electronics, and consumer goods.
Three-quarters of the workforce is in the business sector either agriculture or industry. Agriculture accounts for 20 percent of the GDP. Before World War II, more than 75 percent of the population were farmers. Today, due mainly to advances in agricultural technology, this figure has shrunk to fewer than 30 percent; this includes a million people who support themselves through subsistence farming. Crops include wheat, corn, oil seeds, sugar beets, and fruit.
Livestock also are raised for dairy products and meat. A quarter of the labor force is in education, government, or services. The tourist industry, which grew steadily throughout the s, has been virtually extinguished by the civil war of the s. Petrol, imported goods, food, or loot from occupied territories is bought and sold on the black market at the borders of Serbia. Land Tenure and Property.
Under the Communist system, virtually everything was owned by the government. However, even under Tito, many farmers opposed collective farms, and while the government did run several such large-scale operations, small, privately owned farms were permitted as well. Since Tito's demise, the country has been moving toward a capitalist economy.
More privatization has been allowed, and people have begun to open stores and businesses. However, this economic development has been hindered by sanctions and by the chaos of civil war. Serbia produces agricultural products and manufactured goods textiles, machinery, cars, household appliances, etc. However, the civil war has slowed or halted production in many areas, and along with economic sanctions, has created a situation of shortages and rationing.
Many goods are bought and sold on the black market; they are brought into the country illegally and sold for high prices. Many people, especially in rural areas, also rely on their own gardens and animals to supplement their diets.
Industries include machine-building aircraft, trucks, tanks, other weapons, and agricultural equipmentmetallurgy, mining, production of consumer goods, and electronics. Serbia has one of the largest hydroelectric dams in Europe, and supplies electricity not just to the former Yugoslav republics but to neighboring countries as well. Trade has been restricted by sanctions imposed by many Western countries.
It is traditional for children to continue in the trade or occupation of their parents. However, with more educational opportunities, this is not necessarily the case now.
There are approximately two million people in the socialized sector, of which 75 percent are in business agriculture or industry and 25 percent are in education, government, and other services. There is also a significant unemployment rate 26 percent in Social Stratification Classes and Castes.
Before World War II the base of society was the peasant class, with a small upper class composed of government workers, professionals, merchants, and artisans, and an even tinier middle class.
Under communism, education, Party membership, and rapid industrialization offered possibilities for upward mobility. Since the fall of Tito's government and the rise of the free-market economy, people have been able to attempt to better their status through entrepreneurship. However, economic sanctions have had the effect of decreasing the overall standard of living; shortages and inflation make even necessary items unaffordable or unavailable.
This situation has created more extreme differences between the rich and the poor, as those who have access to goods can hoard them and sell them for exorbitant rates. Symbols of Social Stratification. Most young people and city-dwellers wear Western-style clothing.
In the villages, women wear the traditional outfit of a plain blouse, long black skirt, and head scarf. For festive occasions, unmarried women wear small red felt caps adorned with gold braid, and married women don large white hats with starched wings.
Albanian men in Kosovo wear small white caps, which reflect their Muslim heritage. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia elects a president for a four-year term although during his eleven-year tenure, Slobodan Milosevic refused to recognize the outcome of these elections if they were not to his advantage.
The president appoints a prime minister. The legislative branch of the government, called the Federal Assembly, consists of two houses. The Chamber of Citizens, with seats from Serbia and 30 from Montenegrois elected by popular vote. The Chamber of Republics, with 20 representatives from each republic, is chosen by republic assemblies.
However, sinceSerbia has superseded Montenegro's right to have representatives in the Chamber of Republics. Both Serbia and Montenegro also have their own governments, which are similar in structure to the federal one. Each has its own president, legislature, and court system.
The voting age is sixteen if one is employed, or eighteen otherwise. Leadership and Political Officials. Serbia has a history of powerful, demagogic leaders who have maintained control by manipulating the media and other forceful methods.
The 1990s Balkan Wars in Key Dates
This has created a certain distance between the highest government officials and the people, which can manifest itself in the populace as either fear, admiration, or a combination of the two. Today, there are eleven political parties represented in the Yugoslav Federal Assembly, four from Montenegro and seven from Serbia. Until the September elections, Milosevic's Socialist Party of Serbia, and Milosevic himself, exercised ultimate power.
Kostunica managed to unite eighteen opposition groups as the Democratic Opposition of Serbia, but this coalition is fraught with dissension. Social Problems and Control.
There are local court systems in each republic, as well as a Federal Court, which is the highest court of appeals and which also resolves property disputes among the republics. There is a high rate of corruption in government and in business. Refugees, economic strain, and social unrest have also been major social problems. Political dissidents have been dealt swift and harsh punishments. The military consists of an army made up of ground forces with border troops, naval forces, and air defense forces.
It is under the command of the Yugoslav president, in conjunction with the Supreme Defense Council, which includes the presidents of both Serbia and Montenegro. All men are required to serve one year in the armed forces. The police both federal and republican have the responsibility of maintaining order in the country, Church Island, Bay of Kotor. Montenegro borders the Adriatic Sea.
Social Welfare and Change Programs The Communist regime instituted an extensive social welfare system, much of which is still intact. This system provides retirement and disability pensions as well as unemployment and family allowances.
Dating in Serbiado's and don'ts. - Belgrade Forum - TripAdvisor
There is also a socialized health care system, and the government runs shelters and homes for orphans and the mentally and physically disabled. However, civil war and economic sanctions have left the government in many instances unable to pay its Social Security checks, and many older and disabled people have suffered as a result. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Western nongovernmental organizations, including Red Cross and USAID, have provided assistance in dealing with the sizable problems of food, housing, and medical needs.
However, Yugoslavia is not recognized by the international community as a whole, and has been denied admission to the United Nations and other international organizations. Traditionally, women perform only domestic work. Under communism, however, they began to take other types of jobs in large numbers.
The number of women wage earners increased fromin to 2.
- Breakup of Yugoslavia
- Dating in Serbia...do's and don'ts. - Belgrade Forum
The percentage of women who work outside the home varies greatly from region to region. Most women take positions in cultural and social welfare, public service and administration, and trade and catering.
Almost all of the nation's elementary school teachers are women. However, even when women work outside the home, they are still expected to cook, clean, and take care of other domestic tasks. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Serbian culture is traditionally male-dominated.Why are SERBIAN WOMEN so BEAUTIFUL?
Men are considered the head of the household. While women have gained significant economic power since World War II, many vestiges of the patriarchal system are still evident in women's lower social status.
Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Wedding celebrations often last for days. Before a couple enters their new house for the first time, the bride stands in the doorway and lifts a baby boy three times. This is to ensure that the marriage will be blessed with children.
Marriages are generally not arranged. Under Tito, women gained equal rights in marriage and divorce became easier and more common. It is customary for several generations to live together under the same roof. Ethnic Albanians tend to have large families, of eight to ten children, and extended families often live together in a compound of houses enclosed by a stone wall. Even in Serbian families, which tend to be smaller, cousins, aunts, uncles, and other family members often live, if not in the same house, then in close proximity to one another.
The Serbian language does not distinguish between cousins and siblings, which is an indication of the particular closeness of extended families. Inheritance customs follow a system of male primogeniture: The firstborn son inherits the family's property. Until modern times, rural Montenegrins lived in clans. Feuding among the different clans was legendary and could go on for generations.
In rural areas the land was traditionally worked under the administration of zadrugas, groups of a hundred or more people made up of extended families, which were overseen by male elders. The zadrugas were religious groups, each with its own patron saint, and served the social function of providing for orphans, the elderly, and the sick or disabled.
In the s the organizations began to evolve from the traditional patriarchal system to a more cooperative one. They also declined in prevalence as the population became more urban than rural. Infant care is largely the role of the mother.
Godparents also play a significant part, and there is a fairly elaborate ceremony soon after birth that involves the godparent cutting the child's umbilical cord. Under the Communist regime, the government set up day nurseries to care for babies, allowing women to return to their jobs soon after childbirth. Child Rearing and Education. The godfather kum or godmother kuma plays an important role in a child's upbringing.
They are not related by blood, but are considered part of the spiritual family.