EPHEMERIS. Nuntii Latini universi.
Granada, the black ex-slave, author and humanist Juan Latino (ca. ca. ) was poised to make a .. puppibus Ecclesae Romanae in proelia summus virtutem misit victricem a Date of Acceptance: November 19, This content. liberos date. non decet tam vetus sine liberis nomen esse, sed indidem .. invisente novo proelia torva viro. et tu non orbum luxti deserta cubile, sed fratris cari. the East as already acquired: and if it be so taken, that date of the Ode cannot be true. Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior Campus sepulchris impia proelia.
The earliest literary productions of the Armenian language date from the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian era. To this period belong the translation of the Scriptures and the old Armenian Chronicle.
The Armenian is still a living language, though spoken in widely separated districts, owing to the scattered locations in which the Armenians are found to-day. This language, only recently discovered and identified as Indo-European, was spoken in the districts east of the Caspian Sea modern Turkestan. While in some respects closely related to the three Asiatic branches of the Indo-European family already considered, in others it shows close relationship to the European members of the family.
The literature of the Tokharian, so far as it has been brought to light, consists mainly of translations from the Sanskrit sacred writings, and dates from the seventh century of our era. Probably they arrived in these districts much earlier.
The earliest literary productions are the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer, which very likely go back to the ninth century B. From the sixth century B. Modern Greek, when we consider its distance in time from antiquity, is remarkably similar to the classical Greek of the fourth and fifth centuries B. The Italic Group embraces the Umbrian, spoken in the northern part of the Italian peninsula in ancient Umbria ; the Latin, spoken in the central part in Latium ; the Oscan, spoken in the southern part in Samnium, Campania, Lucania, etc.
Besides these, there were a number of minor dialects, such as the Marsian, Volscian, etc.
Bennett's New Latin Grammar
Of all these barring the Latinthere are no remains except a few scanty inscriptions. Latin literature begins shortly after B. In the earliest historical times of which we have any record, the Celts occupied extensive portions of northern Italy, as well as certain areas in central Europe; but after the second century B. Among the chief languages belonging to the Celtic group are the Gallic, spoken in ancient Gaul; the Breton, still spoken in the modern French province of Brittany; the Irish, which is still extensively spoken in Ireland among the common people, the Welsh; and the Gaelic of the Scotch Highlanders.
The Teutonic group is very extensive. Its earliest representative is the Gothic, preserved for us in the translation of the scriptures by the Gothic Bishop Ulfilas about A. Other languages belonging to this group are the Old Norse, once spoken in Scandinavia, and from which are descended the modern Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish; German; Dutch; Anglo-Saxon, from which is descended the modern English. The languages of this group belong to eastern Europe.
The Baltic division of the group embraces the Lithuanian and Lettic, spoken to-day by the people living on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. The earliest literary productions of these languages date from the sixteenth century. The Slavic division comprises a large number of languages, the most important of which are the Russian, the Bulgarian, the Serbian, the Bohemian, the Polish.
All of these were late in developing a literature, the earliest to do so being the Old Bulgarian, in which we find a translation of the Bible dating from the ninth century. This is most nearly related to the Balto-Slavic group, and is characterized by the very large proportion of words borrowed from Latin, Turkish, Greek, and Slavic. Its literature does not begin till the seventeenth century. Home of the Indo-European Family. We must believe, therefore, that at one time there existed a homogeneous clan or tribe of people speaking a language from which all the above enumerated languages are descended.
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The precise location of the home of this ancient tribe cannot be determined. For a long time it was assumed that it was in central Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, but this view has long been rejected as untenable. It arose from the exaggerated importance attached for a long while to Sanskrit. The great antiquity of the earliest literary remains of the Sanskrit the Vedic Hymns suggested that the inhabitants of India were geographically close to the original seat of the Indo-European Family.
Hence the home was sought in the elevated plateau to the north. To-day it is thought that central or southeastern Europe is much more likely to have been the cradle of the Indo-European parent-speech, though anything like a logical demonstration of so difficult a problem can hardly be expected. As to the size and extent of the original tribe whence the Indo-European languages have sprung, we can only speculate.
It probably was not large, and very likely formed a compact racial and linguistic unit for centuries, possibly for thousands of years. The time at which Indo-European unity ceased and the various individual languages began their separate existence, is likewise shrouded in obscurity.
When we consider that the separate existence of the Sanskrit may antedate B. Stages in the Development of the Latin Language. The oldest of these belong to the sixth and seventh centuries B. Roman literature does not begin till several centuries later, viz.
We may recognize the following clearly marked periods of the language and literature: The Preliterary Period, from the earliest times down to B. For this period our knowledge of Latin depends almost exclusively upon the scanty inscriptions that have survived from this remote time.
Latin Word List – lexicomas
Few of these are of any length. Even in this age the language had already become highly developed as a medium of expression. In the hands of certain gifted writers it had even become a vehicle of power and beauty. In its simplicity, however, it naturally marks a contrast with the more finished diction of later days.
To this period belong: Livius Andronicus, about B. Translation of Homer's Odyssey; Tragedies. Plautus, about B. Naevius, about B. Terence, about B.
Pacuvius, about B. Accius, about 85 B. The Golden Age, from Cicero 81 B.
In this period the language, especially in the hands of Cicero, reaches a high degree of stylistic perfection. Its vocabulary, however, has not yet attained its greatest fullness and range. Traces of the diction of the Archaic Period are often noticed, especially in the poets, who naturally sought their effects by reverting to the speech of olden times. Literature reached its culmination in this epoch, especially in the great poets of the Augustan Age.
The following writers belong here: Lucretius, about B. Poem on Epicurean Philosophy. Catullus, about 54 B. Nepos, about about 30 B. Tibullus, about B. Propertius, about about 15 B. Hespere, quis caelo fertur crudelior ignis? Hespere, quis caelo lucet iucundior ignis?
Hesperus e nobis, aequales, abstulit unam. Ut flos in saeptis secretus nascitur hortis, ignotus pecori, nullo convolsus aratro, quem mulcent aurae, firmat sol, educat imber; multi illum pueri, multae optavere puellae: Ut vidua in nudo vitis quae nascitur aruo, numquam se extollit, numquam mitem educat uvam, sed tenerum prono deflectens pondere corpus iam iam contingit summum radice flagellum; hanc nulli agricolae, nulli coluere iuvenci: Et tu ne pugna cum tali coniuge virgo.
Argonautia et epythalamium Thetidis et Pelei Peliaco quondam prognatae vertice pinus dicuntur liquidas Neptuni nasse per undas Phasidos ad fluctus et fines Aeetaeos, cum lecti iuvenes, Argiuae robora pubis, auratam optantes Colchis avertere pellem ausi sunt vada salsa cita decurrere puppi, caerula verrentes abiegnis aequora palmis.
Iuppiter omnipotens, utinam ne tempore primo Gnosia Cecropiae tetigissent litora puppes, indomito nec dira ferens stipendia tauro perfidus in Cretam religasset navita funem, nec malus hic celans dulci crudelia forma consilia in nostris requiesset sedibus hospes!
Pelea nam tecum pariter soror aspernata est, nec Thetidis taedas voluit celebrare iugales. Omnia qui magni dispexit lumina mundi, qui stellarum ortus comperit atque obitus, flammeus ut rapidi solis nitor obscuretur, ut cedant certis sidera temporibus, ut Triviam furtim sub Latmia saxa relegans dulcis amor gyro devocet aereo: Iuppiter, ut tristi lumina saepe manu!