Subligaculum - Old Rags Footnotes
Related terms: Diazoma/διάζωμα (Greek), limus (Latin - when worn by slaves, in the Villa Romana del Cesale near Piazza Armerina, Sicily, dating to the 4th. The importance of Latin increased with the growth of Roman power, and what had diū resistere nōn potuit et respondit: “Date mihi4 ōrnāmenta quae in sinistrīs but the superlative is formed by adding -limus to the base of the positive. Received Date: 24 February Accepted Date: 10 October . The species has been named limus, Latin noun for sludge referring to.
There were two main branches of the Iranian group, viz. The Old Persian was the official language of the court, and appears in a number of so-called cuneiform  inscriptions, the earliest of which date from the time of Darius I sixth century B.
The other branch of the Iranian, the Avestan,  is the language of the Avesta or sacred books of the Parsees, the followers of Zoroaster, founder of the religion of the fire-worshippers. Portions of these sacred books may have been composed as early as B. Modern Persian is a living representative of the old Iranian speech. It has naturally been much modified by time, particularly through the introduction of many words from the Arabic.
This is closely related to the Iranian, and was formerly classified under that group. It is now recognized as entitled to independent rank. The earliest literary productions of the Armenian language date from the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian era. To this period belong the translation of the Scriptures and the old Armenian Chronicle. The Armenian is still a living language, though spoken in widely separated districts, owing to the scattered locations in which the Armenians are found to-day.
This language, only recently discovered and identified as Indo-European, was spoken in the districts east of the Caspian Sea modern Turkestan. While in some respects closely related to the three Asiatic branches of the Indo-European family already considered, in others it shows close relationship to the European members of the family. The literature of the Tokharian, so far as it has been brought to light, consists mainly of translations from the Sanskrit sacred writings, and dates from the seventh century of our era.
Probably they arrived in these districts much earlier. The earliest literary productions are the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer, which very likely go back to the ninth century B.
From the sixth century B. Modern Greek, when we consider its distance in time from antiquity, is remarkably similar to the classical Greek of the fourth and fifth centuries B. The Italic Group embraces the Umbrian, spoken in the northern part of the Italian peninsula in ancient Umbria ; the Latin, spoken in the central part in Latium ; the Oscan, spoken in the southern part in Samnium, Campania, Lucania, etc. Besides these, there were a number of minor dialects, such as the Marsian, Volscian, etc.
Of all these barring the Latinthere are no remains except a few scanty inscriptions. Latin literature begins shortly after B.
NEW LATIN GRAMMAR
In the earliest historical times of which we have any record, the Celts occupied extensive portions of northern Italy, as well as certain areas in central Europe; but after the second century B.
Among the chief languages belonging to the Celtic group are the Gallic, spoken in ancient Gaul; the Breton, still spoken in the modern French province of Brittany; the Irish, which is still extensively spoken in Ireland among the common people, the Welsh; and the Gaelic of the Scotch Highlanders. The Teutonic group is very extensive. Its earliest representative is the Gothic, preserved for us in the translation of the scriptures by the Gothic Bishop Ulfilas about A. Other languages belonging to this group are the Old Norse, once spoken in Scandinavia, and from which are descended the modern Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish; German; Dutch; Anglo-Saxon, from which is descended the modern English.
The languages of this group belong to eastern Europe. The Baltic division of the group embraces the Lithuanian and Lettic, spoken to-day by the people living on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. The earliest literary productions of these languages date from the sixteenth century.
The Slavic division comprises a large number of languages, the most important of which are the Russian, the Bulgarian, the Serbian, the Bohemian, the Polish. All of these were late in developing a literature, the earliest to do so being the Old Bulgarian, in which we find a translation of the Bible dating from the ninth century.
This is most nearly related to the Balto-Slavic group, and is characterized by the very large proportion of words borrowed from Latin, Turkish, Greek, and Slavic. Its literature does not begin till the seventeenth century.
Home of the Indo-European Family. We must believe, therefore, that at one time there existed a homogeneous clan or tribe of people speaking a language from which all the above enumerated languages are descended. The precise location of the home of this ancient tribe cannot be determined. For a long time it was assumed that it was in central Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, but this view has long been rejected as untenable.
It arose from the exaggerated importance attached for a long while to Sanskrit. The great antiquity of the earliest literary remains of the Sanskrit the Vedic Hymns suggested that the inhabitants of India were geographically close to the original seat of the Indo-European Family. Hence the home was sought in the elevated plateau to the north. To-day it is thought that central or southeastern Europe is much more likely to have been the cradle of the Indo-European parent-speech, though anything like a logical demonstration of so difficult a problem can hardly be expected.
As to the size and extent of the original tribe whence the Indo-European languages have sprung, we can only speculate. It probably was not large, and very likely formed a compact racial and linguistic unit for centuries, possibly for thousands of years. The time at which Indo-European unity ceased and the various individual languages began their separate existence, is likewise shrouded in obscurity. When we consider that the separate existence of the Sanskrit may antedate B.
Stages in the Development of the Latin Language. The oldest of these belong to the sixth and seventh centuries B.
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Roman literature does not begin till several centuries later, viz. We may recognize the following clearly marked periods of the language and literature: The Preliterary Period, from the earliest times down to B. For this period our knowledge of Latin depends almost exclusively upon the scanty inscriptions that have survived from this remote time.
Few of these are of any length. Even in this age the language had already become highly developed as a medium of expression. In the hands of certain gifted writers it had even become a vehicle of power and beauty.
In its simplicity, however, it naturally marks a contrast with the more finished diction of later days. To this period belong: Livius Andronicus, about B. Translation of Homer's Odyssey; Tragedies. Plautus, about B. Naevius, about B. Terence, about B. Pacuvius, about B. Accius, about 85 B. The Golden Age, from Cicero 81 B.
In this period the language, especially in the hands of Cicero, reaches a high degree of stylistic perfection. Its vocabulary, however, has not yet attained its greatest fullness and range. Traces of the diction of the Archaic Period are often noticed, especially in the poets, who naturally sought their effects by reverting to the speech of olden times.
Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War - Wikipedia
A third objection is the perceived partiality of the Church, where victims of the left have been proposed for beatification, while victims of the right have been ignored.
Of the first objection, one of the most notable cases has centered on Cruz Laplana y Laguna, Bishop of Cuencaa well-known supporter of the monarchist regime. Laplana y Laguna was described by his biographer as "supreme advisor" to the general, as well as being closely involved with the Falange.
When the Nationalist uprising in Cuenca failed, Laplana y Lagun was arrested by Republican militiamen for treason. He was tried for conspiring against the Republican government and executed on 8 August. Over several days before the uprising, Father Fulgencio met with these landowners in the village casino—the hub of social life for the local elites in rural Spain—to organize support for the rebellion.
He offered guns and money to anyone who would join an improvised militia. Rigoberto Domenech, Archbishop of Zaragozadeclared publicly on 11 August that the military uprising was to be supported, and its defensive actions approved, because "it is not done in the service of anarchy, but in the benefit of order, fatherland, and religion" in response to the Red Terror. Friar Zabala was martyred during the Civil War and was beatified.
Attention was called to the fact that Fr. Olaso had been a missionary in the Philippines during the Katipunan rebellion against Spanish rule, and had been accused of torturing Friar Mariano Dacanay, an alleged rebel sympathizer. It also misunderstands the nature of a cause for martyrdom, where the primary factor is the person's death due to religious hatred of the faith, rather than the saintliness of his previous life.
The third objection refers to the Church's attitude to victims of Nationalist repression.