Radon and its alpha-emitting radioactive decay products are generally the the United Kingdom), and examined the adverse health effects associated with .. to noise can lead to chronic conditions such as hypertension and heart disease. off as a result of the radioactive decay of uranium. While small in Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. (UKAEA) has embarked At the heart of the website. of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. Jesus” for childlike instructions and immediate entry into the Kingdom of God. Radiometric dating, buttressed by uniformitarianism, is evolution's flagship, Most people think that radioactive dating has proven the earth is billions of years old.
Both indoor and outdoor radon environmental concentrations often undergo significant temporal and spatial variation Fisher et al. In some areas of the United States, the average year-long outdoor radon concentration can equal that of the national indoor average radon concentration i. The USEPA has assigned each county in the United States to one of three radon potential zones based on numerous factors, including short-term indoor radon measurements, aerial measurements of uranium, geology, soil permeability, and building foundation type.
Zone 1 counties have a predicted average indoor screening i.
Radiometric Dating and 6,000 Years — Part One
Radon decay product exposure delivers 37 percent of the total effective dose per individual in the United States Figure 5. The maximum residential radon screening measurement recorded was Note that the existing elevated residential radon concentrations in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, are not related to mining activities, but rather are attributable to the strong radium source strength in that geographical area. Radon zones in Virginia; red zones indicate high radon potential, orange zones indicate moderate radon potential, and yellow zones represent low radon potential.
The USEPA updated the risk estimate inprojecting that of the totallung cancer deaths that occurred nationally in21, The BEIR VI committee and the USEPA note that, although it is not possible to eliminate radon exposure completely, projections from miner-based studies to the residential setting indicate that approximately one-fourth of the radon-related lung cancers could be avoided by lowering radon concentrations in all U. As noted above, risk estimates for protracted exposure to radon decay products among the general public are based on the indirect evidence from radon-exposed miners and are subject to multiple uncertainties.
For example, the cumulative radon exposure values for miners are often many times higher than those for the general public, the exposure rate is higher for miners than for the general public, the breathing rate and type of breathing i.
Because of the uncertainties in projecting miner-based risk estimates to nonworker populations, and in order to obtain direct information on the risk posed by residential radon exposure, numerous investigators have performed case-control epidemiological studies that compared the concentration of radon in the homes of cases i. Summaries of the findings from 22 major residential case-control studies are available elsewhere Darby et al. Although the risk estimates for protracted radon exposure and lung cancer incidence varied among the studies, 19 of 22 exhibited increased risk estimates at an average long-term radon exposure that was even below i.
Pooling of residential radon studies performed both in North America and Europe Darby et al. These findings further support the need to reduce radon exposures for workers involved with uranium mining and processing to as low as reasonably achievable ALARA.
Consistent with the prevalence of exposure and its adverse effects, residential radon decay product exposure is believed to be the second leading cause of lung cancer overall, the primary cause of lung cancer among individuals who have never smoked, and the leading environmental cause of cancer mortality in the United States USEPA,b; Lubin, ; Field, Moreover, even relatively low-level residential radon concentrations i.
Communities living near uranium tailing piles may have increased environmental radon levels ATSDR, Sources of radon at uranium mining and processing sites include tailings, uranium ore, waste rock, open cuts or underground mines, the processing facility, and water retention ponds Mudd, In many cases, tailings represent the predominant source of radon emission i. The model used in the report included the following input data: Radon emission rates from various types of underground mines and processing facilities are presented in other reports e.
The NRC reviewed existing information regarding the potential for radon and radon decay particle release from uranium tailings, and noted that the relationship between the concentration of radionuclides in a tailings pile and the radon flux from a pile is complex and, moreover, the relationship has considerable variability by site. Although modeling can serve a role, overly heavy reliance should not be placed on general models of radon emission and dispersion without site-specific information.
Because of the complexity and variability of factors that affect off-site releases e. Accurate radiation exposure estimates specific to the Commonwealth of Virginia that could be used for reliable modeling, as well as risk estimates for off-site populations i.
Clearly, additional site-specific research would be required to develop baseline data and methods to assess the long-term potential for releases of radon and its decay products to the population in the adjacent environment. Compared with radon progeny exposure leading to alpha particle exposure, off-site gamma radiation exposure is generally only a concern for individuals in close proximity to uranium tailings.
Long-lived U alpha-emitting decay chain radionuclides that are found in the suspended ore dust in uranium mines include U, Th, Ra, as well as Po with a half-life of days.
The relative contribution of these isotopes to the total lung dose of alpha particles is presented elsewhere Harley et al. The decay products of uranium e. When uranium is incorporated into the body, the primary radiological concern is from the emission of alpha particles, the radiation characteristics of which have been discussed previously in connection with radon.
Regulations regarding exposure to uranium described in Chapter 7 are prompted primarily by its chemical, rather than radiological, characteristics. Uranium Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion Internal exposure to U can occur via inhalation, ingestion, or entry through a cut or other disruption to the skin. Dermal absorption of soluble forms of uranium through intact skin is also possible, but this pathway of exposure is not considered significant.
The rate of inhalation and transport of airborne uranium within the body depends on both the particle size of the aerosol and the solubility of the uranium compound.
For example, soluble forms of uranium e. The majority over 60 percent of uranium in the blood is filtered in the kidneys and excreted in urine within 24 hours. Uranium compounds that are less soluble e. Although uranium has not formally been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARCuranium is considered a Group 1 carcinogen under the category of alpha-particle-emitting, internally deposited radionuclides IARC, Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium, with reported absorption rates that vary widely from 0.
The International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP, model for the fate of uranium after it enters the bloodstream is based on both human and animal data. The model predicts that 12 percent of the uranium in the bloodstream is apportioned to the kidneys, 2 percent to the liver, 15 percent to bone, 1 percent to red blood cells, 30 percent to soft tissues with rapid turnover, 6. The ICRP model also predicts that 63 percent of the uranium that enters the blood is promptly excreted in urine via the bladder, as noted previously Royal Society, According to the ICRPof the uranium that is retained, 66 percent is deposited longer term in the skeleton, 16 percent in the liver, 8 percent in the kidneys, and 10 percent in other tissues.
IARC notes that a portion of uranium deposited in skeletal bones may remain there for over 20 years, which poses a risk for cancer of the bone and leukemia. Additional information on uranium occurrence, routes of exposure and entry into the body, deposition, and clearance is presented in detail elsewhere ICRP,; Leggett, ; NRC, bb; Royal Society, ; Brugge et al. Adverse Health Effects of Uranium Uranium has no known normal metabolic function or essential human elemental requirement.
It has been shown to cause chemical toxicity, and because it emits predominantly alpha particles, uranium is a suspected human carcinogen ATSDR, Soluble uranium compounds and uranium compounds that become soluble by forming a bicarbonate complex in the blood can produce impairment of the proximal tubules ATSDR, ; renal toxicity associated with high doses of uranium can lead to death.
However, if the renal tubular epithelium is damaged by acute or chronic lower level exposures, it can usually regenerate. ATSDR did not identify any human studies that assessed health effects of dermal exposure, as opposed to ingestion, of uranium.
Several epidemiological studies have used aggregate data Mao et al. These studies reported renal effects possibly related to the uranium exposures, but no dose-response findings were observed. Results from the aggregate-based studies i. Numerous epidemiological studies of miners and processors discussed below have noted adverse renal effects associated with uranium exposures from inhalation.
ATSDR also noted that several of these studies analyzed potential reproductive effects i. Experimental animal data concerning systemic adverse health effects from inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption of uranium are more robust.
Animal studies have provided a rich dataset that characterizes the renal toxicity e. Nonspecific neurological symptoms also have been observed in animals that have been exposed dermally or via inhalation of high concentrations of uranium ATSDR, Of note, despite its renal toxicity, there are no reported studies of ototoxicity from uranium in experimental animals, although this question could be highly relevant to uranium and noise co-exposed workers.
Occupational Exposures and Health Effects of Uranium In part because of the low specific activity of uranium, the renal health effects and potential respiratory effects of uranium exposure are most often attributed to the chemical properties of uranium ATSDR, The primary clinically observed health effect related to uranium exposure is chemical-induced nephrotoxicity. The first observations concerning the nephrotoxicity of uranium began in the s, when uranium was intentionally administered as a medical treatment for diabetes and other diseases Hodge, Although the causal link between nephrotoxicity and uranium exposure was established many years ago, few epi-demiological studies with rigorous exposure assessments and sufficient sample sizes have been performed that examine the risk posed by uranium to workers in the uranium mining or processing industry.
Additional epidemiological data relevant to this question among uranium miners and processors will be provided in a later section on silica exposure. Assessing the causal relationships between uranium exposures in miners and adverse health outcomes presents a challenge because of confounding by occupational exposures to radon decay products, silica, and diesel exhaust.
Uranium miners clearly have higher all-cause mortality rates compared with selected reference populations, and do not—as is the case with the majority of other retrospective occupational mortality studies—exhibit the tendency for workers to be healthier than the general reference population i.
In addition, data on lifestyle factors that will affect mortality risk i. As pointed out by the Royal Society report, only a limited number of epidemiological studies have been performed examining the adverse health outcomes of workers who work with uranium and even fewer studies have looked at nonfatal health outcomes. As noted previously in regard to extrapulmonary cancer risk from radon decay product exposure, the ability to observe work-related health effects is reduced when epidemiological studies rely solely on death certificates as a measure of health outcomes.
The potential for exposure to uranium, as noted previously, is highest during processing. Several retrospective cohort mortality studies of uranium processing workers where exposure to radon decay products is expected to be less than that of underground miners, although not negligible, have been performed. These limited studies have failed to establish a consistent pattern of excess mortality among uranium processing workers Archer et al.
Findings from these studies related to silicosis are discussed in a following section. These studies, especially Archer et al. Other sources of epidemiological data are important for assessing the potential health effects of occupational exposure to uranium itself. These data sources are needed because adverse health effects seen in mortality studies of underground uranium miners are dominated by radon-related exposures, and because studies of uranium processors have been limited by small sample sizes and poor exposure assessment.
Thus, findings from the wider uranium industry are particularly relevant to the question of potential uranium-specific adverse health effects from uranium mining and processing.
Your path is getting brighter and sharper every day, and all things are working together for your good. This powerful confession is unequivocally true, but stress-shifting is pivotal to its success, and even so much more so, as we see the end approaching. Jesus said in Matthew By faith we can take our burdens to the Lord, and by faith we can leave them there. At the same time, we are instructed to take upon ourselves the yoke of Christ and to learn of Him. The yoke of Christ is ministering to the widows and fatherless, the hungry, the sick, the imprisoned, the persecuted, etc.
Have you found this King of Glory?Half-life and carbon dating - Nuclear chemistry - Chemistry - Khan Academy
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: All that you see—the marvelous earth and its atmosphere, the sun, moon, and stars, the giraffe, the elephant, the great whale, the hummingbird, man and his marvelous brain, and on and on—is a product of an explosion of nothing.
There is no God.
// Radiometric Dating and 6, Years — Part One - mawatari.info
Creation is an accident. The following e-mail came from Mike: I am an atheist and a believer in evolution.
My mission in contacting you today is not to debate you, but thank you for the information. I know that a debate would be futile, as we both believe firmly what we believe. It is not for me to change your mind, or vice versa.
Just know I appreciate the clear, concise way your site supports your beliefs. Our atheistic visitor, Mike, and Christians look at the Bible from two directly opposing positions: The atheist from unbelief, and the Christian from the perspective of faith.
The born-again have most literally been born into the family of God through childlike faith in Christ Jesus. These two different approaches to the Word of God faith and unbelief result in two very different ways of living, and the resultant fruits, according to the Word of God, are two directly opposite endings.
In order for evolution to have any plausibility at all, billions of years of time and chance are needed. We must mention that that is a provably false premise, but it is what it is and evolutionists must cling to it.
Everything that evolution embraces hinges upon time, chance, and their holy grail: First, God created the heaven and the earth and all living creatures just over 6, years ago. Adam did not evolve from a primordial soup over billions of years. He was fully grown and fully functioning just as the rest of creation was. The earth and its rocks and water may have seemed to have history, but were only seconds old. The second issue is the global flood that destroyed all terrestrial creatures, save for those that were aboard the ark.
The devastation worldwide was immeasurable. The water canopy above the sky was cast down to the earth.