Race and intelligence - Wikipedia
Jason Richwine's IQ-based argument that American Hispanics are less intelligent than native-born whites has been called racist. It's also wrong. Consequently, Richwine's main argument is that Hispanic immigrants and their American descendants have low IQs because they have. IQ Latino trabaja para promover una agenda iberoamericana que busca: (1) destacar el potencial de relaciones e intercambios que existe en el triángulo.
For example, in the United States the average scores of blacks on some IQ tests in were the same as the scores of whites in The Flynn Effect has often been used as an argument that the racial gap in IQ test scores must be environmental too, but this is not generally agreed — others have asserted that the two may have entirely different causes.
A meta-analysis by Te Nijenhuis and van der Flier concluded that the Flynn effect and group differences in intelligence were likely to have different causes. They stated that the Flynn effect is caused primarily by environmental factors and that it's unlikely these same environmental factors play an important role in explaining group differences in IQ.
This had previously been doubted.
Race and intelligence
A separate phenomenon from the Flynn effect has been the discovery that the IQ gap has been gradually closing over the last decades of the 20th century, as black test-takers increased their average scores relative to white test-takers. For instance, Vincent reported in that the black-white IQ gap was decreasing among children, but that it was remaining constant among adults. In the same period, the educational achievement disparity also diminished.
But he argued that this has stalled and that there has been no further narrowing for people born after the late s. In his review of the historical trends, Huntp. The African American means are about 1 standard deviation unit 15 points on the IQ scale below the White means, and the Hispanic means fall in between. A review of the literature found that the IQ gap had diminished by 0. It has also concluded however that, while IQ means are continuing to rise in all ethnic groups, this growth is occurring more slowly among year-old students than among younger students and the black-white IQ gap is no longer narrowing.
As ofa study published in by Heiner Rindermann, Stefan Pinchelmann, and James Thompson have estimated the IQ means of year-old black, white, and Hispanic students to range respectively from They explain that the gap may persist due to the crack epidemicthe degradation of African-American family structurethe rise of fraud in the educational system especially with respect to No Child Left Behindthe decrease in unskilled real wages and employment among African-Americans due to globalization and minimum wage increases, differences in parental practices such as breastfeeding or reading to childrenand "environmental conditions shaped by [African-Americans] themselves.
These factors are not mutually exclusive with one another, and some may, in fact, contribute directly to others. Furthermore, the relationship between genetics and environmental factors may be complicated. For example, the differences in socioeconomic environment for a child may be due to differences in genetic IQ for the parents, and the differences in average brain size between races could be the result of nutritional factors.
However, currently, the question is whether these factors can account for the entire gap between white and black test scores, or only part of it.
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One group of scholars, including Richard E. NisbettJames R. FlynnJoshua Aronson, Diane Halpern, William Dickens, Eric Turkheimer have argued that the environmental factors so far demonstrated are sufficient to account for the entire gap. Nicholas Mackintosh considers this a reasonable argument, but argues that probably it is impossible to ever know for sure; another group including Earl B. HuntArthur Jensen J. Philippe Rushton and Richard Lynn have argued that this is impossible.
Meanwhile, while Hunt considers this a vast overstatement, he nonetheless considers it likely that some portion of the gap will eventually be shown to be caused by genetic factors. Test bias A number of studies have reached the conclusion that IQ tests may be biased against certain groups.
Furthermore, the tests are equally valid predictors of future achievement for black and white Americans. Today, test bias in the sense that some test items systematically give White test takers an unfair advantage because of the way the test has been elaborated is no longer considered a likely cause of the test score gap. But both scholars maintain that there is no evidence that current tests are systemically biased against black test takers.
Stereotype threat and minority status Main article: Stereotype threat Stereotype threat is the fear that one's behavior will confirm an existing stereotype of a group with which one identifies or by which one is defined; this fear may in turn lead to an impairment of performance.
Stereotype threat conditions cause larger than expected IQ differences among groups. They may even deliberately reject certain behaviors that are seen as " acting white.
In Sackett et al. Cohen have not been shown to be effective by attempts to replicate his studies purporting them to be successful. Rather it may be the case that differences in intelligence, particularly parental intelligence, may also cause differences in SES, making separating the two factors difficult.
He argues the SES-linked components reflect parental occupation status, mother's verbal comprehension score and parent-child interaction quality. Hunt also reviews data showing that the correlation between home environment and IQ becomes weaker with age. The same review also points out that adoption studies generally are biased towards including only high and high middle SES adoptive families, meaning that they will tend to overestimate average genetic effects. They also note that studies of adoption from lower-class homes to middle-class homes have shown that such children experience a 12—18 pt gain in IQ relative to children who remain in low SES homes.
Black and Hispanic children have much higher levels than white children. For example, iodine deficiency causes a fallon average, of 12 IQ points. The first two years of life is the critical time for malnutrition, the consequences of which are often irreversible and include poor cognitive development, educability, and future economic productivity.
At the same time white mothers are twice as likely to breastfeed their infants, and breastfeeding is highly correlated with IQ for low birthweight infants. In this way a wide number of health related factors that influence IQ are unequally distributed between the two groups. The authors suggest that this relationship is causal but state that the practical significance of this gain is debatable; however, they highlight one study suggesting an association between breastfeeding and academic performance in Brazil, where "breastfeeding duration does not present marked variability by socioeconomic position.
They suggest that "much of the beneficial long-term effects typically attributed to breastfeeding, per say, may primarily be due to selection pressures into infant feeding practices along key demographic characteristics such as race and socioeconomic status. They argue that also other more intensive and prolonged educational interventions have not produced lasting effects on IQ or scholastic performance.
Other early intervention programs have shown IQ effects in the range of 4—5 points, which are sustained until at least age 8— Effects on academic achievement can also be substantial. Nisbett also argues that not only early age intervention can be effective, citing other successful intervention studies from infancy to college. Assuming that the IQ gap was the result of lower exposure to tasks using the cognitive functions usually found in IQ tests among African American test takes, they prepared a group of African Americans in this type of tasks before taking an IQ test.
The researchers found that there was no subsequent difference in performance between the African-Americans and White test takers. Heritability of IQ Ongoing research aims to understand the contribution of genes to differences in intelligence. Currently there is no non-circumstantial evidence that the test score gap has a genetic component,    although some researchers believe that the existing circumstantial evidence makes it plausible to believe that hard evidence for a genetic component will eventually appear.
Genetics of race and intelligence Main article: Race and genetics Geneticist Alan R. Templeton argues that the question about the possible genetic effects on the test score gap is muddled by the general focus on "race" rather than on populations defined by gene frequency or by geographical proximity, and by the general insistence on phrasing the question in terms of heritability.
Mackintosh points out that by using genetic cluster analysis to correlate gene frequencies with continental populations it could possibly be the case that African populations had a higher frequency of certain genetic variants that contribute to an average lower intelligence.
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Such a hypothetical situation could hold without all Africans carrying the same genes or belonging to a single Evolutionary lineage. According to Mackintosh, a biological basis for the gap thus cannot be ruled out on a priori grounds. Intelligence is a polygenic trait. This means that intelligence is under the influence of several genes, possibly several thousand. Current studies using quantitative trait loci have yielded little success in the search for genes influencing intelligence.
Robert Plomin is confident that QTLs responsible for the variation in IQ scores exist, but due to their small effect sizes, more powerful tools of analysis will be required to detect them. Mackintosh however suggests that it may never become possible to account satisfyingly for the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors.
The review by Nisbett et al. Hunt and several other researchers however maintain that genetic causes cannot be ruled out, and that new evidence may yet show a genetic contribution to the gap.
Nonetheless, Nisbett and colleagues consider the entire IQ gap to be explained by the environmental factors that have thus far been demonstrated to influence it, and Mackintosh does not find this view to be unreasonable.
Twin studies of intelligence have reported high heritability values. However, these studies are based on questionable assumptions. As evidence, he notes that there is practically no mention of such research in the congressional testimony related to that legislation.
But it was clearly part of the larger public debate about immigration. The present immigration laws are proof that no uncertain fear was evoked following the publication of the data. We have enough people but they have not enough education or intelligence. So what does Richwine want to do about immigration?
Unlike the earlyth-century restrictionists, he rejects the notion of ethnic and national quotas. As noted above, Richwine relies a great deal on the research of Lynn and Vanhanen that finds persistent IQ deficits in many nations. Recently, American Conservative publisher Ron Unz analyzed their work and concluded that in fact, their data suggest that low average national and ethnic IQs are not persistent. Instead, average IQs rise as countries become wealthier.
Now both eastern and western scores in Germany average around According to other data, Croatians had an average of 90, Bulgarians were at 91, Romanians were at 94, Poles were at 92, and Sicilians were at Inthe lowest IQ scores in Europe belonged to the Irish, who averaged just 87 points.
These results are not far off from those that the early 20th century psychometricians found for immigrant groups coming to America. But as Unz points out, by the 21st century the incomes and educational attainments of American descendants of Greek, Slav, Italian, and Irish immigrants are now comfortably above those of the Old Stock white natives whose purity Brigham, Hirsch, and Yerkes were so anxious to defend.
In the results from the triennial Program for International Student Assessmentthe Irish now outscore the British on reading and are very close on math and science.
Hispanic educational achievements and incomes do lag behind those of white Americans. And certainly there is a substantial genetic component to intelligence; genes are, after all, the recipes that build bodies and brains in response to environmental cues. So what else might account for relatively lower Hispanic achievement so far in the U.