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Like all fan communities, western media fans have developed internal rules covering everything from what to include in a story header to how long to include a spoiler warning following aired episodes for a definition and overview of western media fandom, see Coppa.
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In this example, the mods violated the fannish prohibition against the borrowing of original characters, settings, plot points, or narrative structures from other fan writers without permission—even though as fan fiction, the source of the inspiration engages in such borrowing itself. These kinds of normative rules can be altered, of course, but any change requires long and involved discussions.
In this essay, we look at various debates that showcase how this fan community—media fandom on LiveJournal—creates and enforces but also discusses and changes its normative behavior. Moreover, we suggest that these conversations offer insight into the specific relation many fan writers have to their stories and how it may differ from a more universal authorial affect. Only with a clear definition of copyright infringement and plagiarism, as well as a clear understanding of who is affected and in what ways in any of these cases, can we fully understand the social and moral intersection of fan remixing of fan fiction.
Only when sidestepping the legal and economic concerns surrounding remix can we focus on the ethical intricacies between copyright holders and fan writers and, more importantly, within fan communities. Fan communities differ greatly over time, between fandoms, and even depending on their central social interfaces such as con-based zines, email-based listservs, journal-based online communities, etc.
Much strife is caused when different traditions and their associated mores intersect. In fact, looking at media fandom today, we may already be seeing changed attitudes—even as the debates continue over remix permission and unauthorised use. Why Remixes Are Not Copyright Infringement In discussing the limits of unauthorised use, it is important to distinguish plagiarism and copyright violation from forms of remix.
While we are more concerned with the ethical issues surrounding plagiarism, we want to briefly address copyright infringement, simply because it often gets mixed into the ethics of remixes.
Copyright is strictly defined as a matter of law; in many of the online debates in media fandom, it is often further restricted to U. Law, because a large number of the source texts are owned by U. According to the U.
Casually Dating To Relationship
Over the years, however, intellectual property rights have been expanded and increased at the expense of the public commons Lessig, Boyle. The legal status of fan fiction remains undefined without a specific case that would test the fair use doctrine in regards to fan fiction, yet fair use and fan fiction advocates argue that fan fiction should be understood as eminently transformative and thus protected under fair use.
The nonprofit fan advocacy group, the Organization for Transformative Worksin fact makes clear its position by including the legal term in their name, reflecting a changing understanding of both fans and scholars. Why Remixes Are Not Plagiarism Whereas copyright infringement is a legal concept that punishes violations between fan writers and commercial copyright holders, plagiarism instead is defined by the norms of the audience for which a piece is written: Within fandom one of the most blatant and most easily detectable forms of plagiarism is when a fan copies another work wholesale and publishes it under their own name, either within the same fandom or by simply searching and replacing names to make it fit another fandom.
Other times, fan writers may take selections of published pro or fan fiction and insert them into their works. Within fandom accusations of plagiarism are taken seriously, and fandom as a whole polices itself with regards to plagiarism: The community keeps a list of known plagiarisers that include the names of over fan writers.
Fan fiction plagiarism can only be determined on a case-by-case basis—and fans remain hypervigilant simply because they are all too often falsely accused as merely plagiarising when instead they are interpreting, translating, and transforming.
There is another form of fannish offense that does not actually constitute plagiarism but is closely connected to it, namely the wholesale reposting of stories with attributions intact. This practice is frowned upon for two main reasons. Archiving stories without authorial permission strips authors of this ability. Reposting thus removes the story from the fannish gift exchange—or, worse, inserts the archivist in lieu of the author as the recipient of thanks and comments.
When Copyright Holders Object to Fan Fiction A small group of professional authors vocally proclaim fan fiction as unethical, illegal, or both. It injures the name of the party whose identity is stolen.
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The characters are copyrighted. At first, the sad feelings came often, numbed by binging Downton Abbey into the wee hours of the morning, chased with pots of coffee. The first iPhone was nearly a decade away. I had done some online dating back then, on a site called Swoon. But how to date in the era of eggplant emojis and Snapchat attention spans, when everyone is a Google or Facebook creep away? I spent the next glorious six months dating myself, learning to do things like travel and go to concerts on my own before putting myself out there again.
Get to know yourself so you can be clear on what you hope to get out of dating. Chances are the kind of person you gravitated to at 22 might not suit the person you are now. Keep an open mind and choose from a diverse pool of dates, people with backgrounds and life experiences that may be different from your own.
Ask lots of questions and try to be open-minded and non-judgmental about the answers, without ignoring your spidey sense when things seem amiss. The behaviour on dating apps can be appalling. You ask someone a question, and they answer. And which of the trillions of online dating sites should you use?
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Out of necessity, I learned how to do these things. I no longer felt like I needed a man in my life. Sure, it would be nice to have someone to do those things and to help out, but when it comes down to it, I am capable of taking care of everything on my own. You decide you never want to share a bathroom again There are some advantages to being on your own — advantages like getting up to pee in the middle of the night and not falling in the toilet because no one has left the seat up.
Not having to pick up laundry from the floor brings me utter joy. Why would I want to go back to sharing a bathroom or bedroom with anyone? You get set in your ways You have a routine. You know what needs to be done and how and when it needs to be done.