Demographics of Chicago - Wikipedia
Amid financial insecurity, racial and ethnic prejudices ran rampant. riots in Chicago and other cities in the summer of marked the beginning of a growing. As the imperative to marry has fallen, alongside other changes in the economy that have To date, many explanations have focused on the poor and working class, even though racial and Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Frequently requested statistics for: Chicago city, Illinois. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent(a).. %. Two or More Races, percent.
The White, Black and Hispanic communities extend radially outward from the center of the city. Chicago has a large Irish American population, with many still residing on the South Side. The early years of Chicago coincided with the significant rise in Irish immigration in the s and s.
- Demographics of Chicago
- How do you navigate the dating world when some view your ethnicity as a fetish?
- The Chicago Race Riot of 1919
Some Irish already lived in Chicago when it was incorporated as a city in In the next few years Irish numbers grew rapidly, particularly after the arrival of refugees from the Great Famine.
By Irish immigrants accounted for about one-fifth of the city's population. The Irish gained entry to Chicago's Fire and Police Departments and have kept family traditions of participation in these units. The Irish laid the foundations for many of the city's Roman Catholic churches, schools and hospitals. The Irish are still very active in the city's politics.
Germans have constituted a major portion of ethnic whites in Chicago since the beginning of the city's history. When the Great Plains opened up for settlement in the s and s, many German immigrants stopped in Chicago to earn additional money before moving West to claim a homestead.
Those with skills in demand could—and often did—stay. Fromwhen Germans constituted one-sixth of Chicago's population, until the turn of the 20th century, people of German descent constituted the largest ethnic group in the city, followed by Irish, Poles, and Swedes. In, Chicagoans—one out of every four residents—had either been born in Germany or had a parent born there. Although their numbers dropped because of reduced emigration from Germany and because World War I had made it unpopular to acknowledge one's German heritage, 22 percent of Chicago's population still did so in She feels like they are not seeking out a relationship based on an actual personality, they are basing it solely on race.
Racial fetishization exists across genders and ethnicities.
According to a University of Cambridge paper on racial fetishes, the cause stems from a history of racial oppression that indoctrinated our society with racism and negative stereotypes, thereby nurturing a culture of more often men— but sometimes women — who simply view ethnicity as a sexual fantasy.
The paper makes the distinction between racial fetishes and unconventional obsessions — for, say, clothing or body parts — because the former reduces the person to a sexual object.
In that sense, year-old Maggie Chang is way ahead. She runs a club at the University of Waterloo dedicated to educating about equality. One of her goals is to crush stereotypes.
Ethnic groups in Chicago
She partially blames the perpetuation of ethnic stereotypes on media. A study on U. Where watching negative racial depictions can foster racism and internalized stereotypes in those not being portrayed, those who are can feel shame or anger toward their onscreen representations.
Most importantly, they do not test racial—ethnic and gender body type preferences of daters in an actual setting. It is the first to systematically test the extent to which African-American, Asian, Latino, and white men and women of different ages, and in an actual dating context, may similarly prefer dominant portrayals of ideal bodies; that is thin women and muscular men, in dating preferences.
We focus our review of the literature exclusively on those studies that address the United States, unless otherwise noted, since that is the location of our sample of daters.
Gendered Body Type Preferences To begin, we are interested in whether men or women are more likely to state specific body type preferences for a date.
There is an extensive literature on sex differences in mate preferences showing that men place greater value than women on the physical attractiveness of an ideal mate e. Although they may do so, there is scant empirical data showing the extent to which men have more specific body type preferences than do women.
While not the focus of their college student speed daters study, Kurzban and Weedenp. Women also suffer harsher social consequences for violating standards of beautiful bodies than men Cash and Roy ; Stake and Lauer Overweight female college students are less likely to be currently dating, more likely to date less frequently overall, and to perceive their dates as less satisfied when compared to overweight male college students Stake and Lauer To be certain, images of muscular men have gained popularity Spitzer, Henderson, and Zivian ; Trujillobut representations of men are far less constrained Hanke ; Nixon because men also gain status from power, wealth or prestige Hanke We test this hypothesis with two logistic regression models.
Past research has identified these factors as important predictors of marital partner choice or body type preferences. Although our focus is on racial—ethnic and gender differences, we also consider the influence of other factors that have typically been studied in conjunction with mate selection including age, level of education and geographic region see Kalmijn for a comprehensive review of intermediaries in marriage trends.
Education is another important control for various reasons. First, there are racial—ethnic variations in education on a national level Kanewhich are also present in our sample. We also control for age and region. Men and women differ in their age preferences for mates; men generally prefer younger women and women prefer older men Wiederman It might also be the case that body and beauty norms vary by the region of the country in which one lives.
Internet Daters’ Body Type Preferences: Race–Ethnic and Gender Differences
For example, Georgia has higher obesity rates than California CDCso a dater in Atlanta may be more open to larger body types and less open to smaller body types than a dater in L. The daters in our sample are from within 50 miles of four U. We selected these four regions to ensure diversity in our sample, as these are geographically dispersed and have different racial—ethnic compositions.
Since we expect that body type preferences will vary by race—ethnicity, it is important to control for region to be sure we are testing racial—ethnic differences and not simply regional differences. We also control for dater selectivity by measuring the number of specific preferences a dater makes.
Past research finds one's own body type influences the body types desired in potential dates Cachelin et al. Daters could indicate their own body type as being one of the following: We collapsed these into four broad categories: Mainstream Popular Culture and Racial—Cultural Influences Body type preferences are socially derived; ideals of attractiveness and the body vary by culture Crandall and Martinez ; Shaw and throughout history Mulvey et al.
We assert that body type preferences are driven by mainstream popular culture as well as other racial—cultural influences.
Ethnic groups in Chicago - Wikipedia
Such images provide a standard for all that may be negotiated but must be engaged because of its pervasiveness and its association to structures of power and domination. There are many different images of beauty in various segments of popular culture so that even if dominant hegemonic images persist, individuals are still able to choose among a variety of images.
For example, the internet and non-white magazines provide resources that may promote opposing images. As we stated at the outset, study results are inconclusive regarding the extent to which non-whites adhere to dominant standards of beauty.