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Antiochus died in BC on another expedition to the east, where he sought to extract money to pay the indemnity. The reign of his son and successor Seleucus IV Philopator BC was largely spent in attempts to pay the large indemnity, and Seleucus was ultimately assassinated by his minister Heliodorus.
He attempted to restore Seleucid prestige with a successful war against Egypt; but despite driving the Egyptian army back to Alexandria itself, he was forced to withdraw by the Roman envoy Gaius Popillius Laenas, who famously drew a circle in the sand around the king and told him he had to decide whether or not to withdraw from Egypt before leaving the circle.
Antiochus chose to withdraw. The latter part of his reign saw the further disintegration of the Empire. Efforts to deal with both the Parthians and the Jews proved fruitless, and Antiochus himself died during an expedition against the Parthians in BC After the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Seleucid Empire became increasingly unstable.
Frequent civil wars made central authority tenuous at best. Demetrius I attempted to restore Seleucid power in Judea particularly, but was overthrown in BC by Alexander Balas — an impostor who with Egyptian backing claimed to be the son of Epiphanes. Demetrius II proved unable to control the whole of the kingdom, however.
By BC, the Jews in form of the Maccabees had fully established their independence. Parthian expansion continued as well. By this time, the entire Iranian Plateau had been lost to Parthian control. After the death of Antiochus VII, all effective Seleucid rule collapsed, as multiple claimants contested control of what was left of the Seleucid realm in almost unending civil war. Despite the clear collapse of their power, and the decline of their kingdom around them, nobles continued to play kingmakers on a regular basis, with occasional intervention from Ptolemaic Egypt and other outside powers.
The Seleucids existed solely because no other nation wished to absorb them — seeing as they constituted a useful buffer between their other neighbours. In 83 BC, at the invitation of one of the factions in the interminable civil wars, he invaded Syria, and soon established himself as ruler of Syria, putting the Seleucid Empire virtually at an end.
Seleucid rule was not entirely over, however. Even now, civil wars could not be prevented, as another Seleucid, Philip II, contested rule with Antiochus. After the Roman conquest of Pontus, the Romans became increasingly alarmed at the constant source of instability in Syria under the Seleucids. Once Mithridates was defeated by Pompey in 63 BC, Pompey set about the task of remaking the Hellenistic East, by creating new client kingdoms and establishing provinces.
While client nations like Armenia and Judea were allowed to continue with some degree of autonomy under local kings, Pompey saw the Seleucids as too troublesome to continue; and doing away with both rival Seleucid princes, he made Syria into a Roman province. The immense size of the empire, followed by its encompassing nature, made the Seleucid rulers have a governing interest in implementing a policy of racial unity initiated by Alexander.
The Hellenization of the Seleucid empire was achieved by the establishment of Greek cities throughout the empire. Historically significant towns and cities, such as Antioch, were created or renamed with more appropriate Greek names. The creation of new Greek cities and towns was aided by the fact that the Greek mainland was overpopulated and therefore made the vast Seleucid empire ripe for colonization.
Colonization was used to further Greek interest while facilitating the assimilation of many native groups. Socially, this led to the adoption of Greek practices and customs by the educated native classes in order to further themselves in public life and the ruling Macedonian class gradually adopted some of the local traditions.
Many of the existing cities began — or were compelled by force — to adopt Hellenized philosophic thought, religious sentiments, and politics. Synthesizing Hellenic and indigenous cultural, religious, and philosophical ideas met with varying degrees of success — resulting in times of simultaneous peace and rebellion in various parts of the empire.
Such was the case with the Jewish population of the Seleucid empire because the Jews posed a significant problem which eventually led to war. Contrary to the accepting nature of the Ptolemaic empire towards native religions and customs, the Seleucids gradually tried to force Hellenization upon the Jewish people in their territory by outlawing Judaism. This eventually led to the revolt of the Jews under Seleucid control, which would later lead to the Jews achieving independence.
The Attalid dynasty in Anatolia based at Pergamum. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire.
Iglesia Ni Cristo Church in Iloilo Refused to Shelter Typhoon Yolanda Victims
The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. On the interior of the Pergamon Altar is a frieze depicting the life of Telephos, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with their city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than their counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and had to retroactively cultivate their place in Greek mythos.
A further two kingdoms later emerged, the so called Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdom. Each of these kingdoms had, thereafter, a noticeably individual development and history. For the most part, the latter parts of those histories are of gradual decline, with most ending in absorption by the Republic of Rome. We find numerous cycles of alliances, marriages and wars between these states. An alternative date is 30 BC, when the final Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemaic Egypt was conquered by Rome the last remnants of the Seleucid empire having been taken over thirty years earlier.
This more obviously represents the absolute end of the power of the Hellenistic civilizations. Alexander, who was only thirty-three years old when he died, had made no preparations for his succession.
He had married a Bactrian princess, Roxane, when he had conquered Bactria; their son, however, was unborn when Alexander died. Alexander also had a brother, but he was both weak and unintelligent. Like all powerful and ambitious men, they soon fell into conflict with one another.
Greece and Macedonia fell to Antigonus, who founded the Antigonid dynasty of Greek kings; this dynasty would eventually control Asia Minor.
Asia Minor original came under the control of Attalid dynasty, but was eventually subsumed under the Antigonids. Mesopotamia and the Middle East came under the control of Seleucus, who crowned himself Seleucus I and began the Seleucus dynasty every king in this dynasty would be named Seleucus. Egypt came under the control of Ptolemy, who crowned himself Ptolemy I and began the Ptolemid dynasty.
The Ptolemids maintained Greek learning and culture, but adopted several Egyptian customs surrounding the kingship, such as inheritance through the maternal line see the chapter on women in Egyptian history and culture.
These empires periodically fought with one another, for none of these kings ever fully accepted the fact that the empire had fractured into three parts. Each believed that they were the rightful heirs to the entire empire that Alexander had built. Countries, such as Judah, periodically shifted from one empire to another as the fortunes of war went now to the Ptolemies and now to the Seleucids.
Despite the constant conflict, the Hellenistic world was an incredibly prosperous one. Alexander and his successors had liberated an immense amount of wealth from the Persian empire, and with this new wealth in circulation the standard of living rose dramatically. Each of the empires embarked on building projects, on scholarship, on patronage of the arts, and on literature and philosophy. The Ptolemies built an enormous library in their capital city of Alexandria, and sponsored the translation of a host of religious and literary works into Greek.
This period really marked the first international culture in western, middle eastern, and north African history. The Greeks imported their culture: This culture would greatly alter the culture and religion of the Mediterannean. But the flow of culture worked in the opposite direction as well; non-Greek ideas and non-Greeks flowed into Greece and Italy. They took with them their religions, their philosophies, science, and culture; in this environment, eastern religions in particular began to take hold in the Greek city-states both in the east and in Greece.
Among these religions was Zoroastrianism and Mithraism; in later years, this international environment would provide the means for the spread of another eastern religion, Christianity. While the Greeks had for a long time believed that monarchy was a sign of barbarity, they had to come to terms with the reality of their new form of government. While they accepted the monarchy, the set about building somewhat independent poleis that had the structure of the polis without its political independence.
The growth of these cities provoked massive migrations from the Greek mainland, as Greeks settled in these new, far-flung poleis to assume lucrative positions in the military and administration. Spread from Italy to India, from Macedonia to Egypt, Greek culture was the most significant of its times. The mighty empires of the Greeks hung onto this vast amount of territory for almost three centuries.
Slowly, however, a new power was rising in the west, steadily building its own, accidental empire. By the time of Christ, the great Greek empires of the Hellenistic world had been replaced and unified once more into a single empire under the control of an Italian people, the Romans.
One of them was his friend Seleucuswho became king of the eastern provinces — more or less modern Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, together with parts of Turkey, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. His kingdom was to have two capitals, which were founded in c. Antioch in Syria and Seleucia in Mesopotamia. Babylon and Seleucia in Pieria were other important citie.
The empire was, like the empire of Alexander, actually the continuation of the empires before: At the same time, the satrapy of Bactria northern Afghanistan became independent. Later, the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great was able to reconquer these territories, during a series of eastern wars between and Seleucid power had reached its zenith.
Yet, Antiochus was also forced to witness the beginning of its demise. Seleucid influence in Europe, however, was something that the Romans could not allow to happen, and the inevitable war between the two superpowers broke out in One of our sources, the Syriaca by the Greek historian Appian of Alexandriacan be read here. Antiochus received support from many Greek towns and help from the famous Carthaginian general Hannibalbut was defeated and forced to pay a tremendous sum of money.
Moreover, the Seleucid empire lost its possessions in what is now Turkey. Pompey the Great Louvre The tide was now turning against the Seleucid monarchy. In the west, Rome became too powerful to resist. Worse, they backed the Jews, who liberated themselves in the years after the Maccabaean revolt.
At the same time, the Parni founded the Parthian empire, which snatched away the eastern provinces.
The towns in Babyloniaa. Seleucia and Babylon, were captured between April and June New losses followed, civil wars between two rival factions of the Seleucid family were inevitable, and in the second quarter of the first century, the Roman generals Lucullus and Pompey the Great made an end to the Seleucid kingdom.Ang Dating Daan Worldwide Bible Exposition July 21, 2017
The last king was dethroned in The official name of the kingdom was Asia, but the Romans called it Syria. Antioch Seleucia in Mesopotamia. From Persia to present For most of history, the tract of land now called Iran was known as Persia. Early Persia was a formidable empire, whose vast plateau rimmed by mountain ranges, was variously invaded by Arabs, Turks and Mongols. The discovery of oil in the early 20th century generated international interest in the nation, particularly Great Britain and Russia.
A Anglo-Russian agreement divvied up Iran into spheres of influence, though it was later annulled after the First World War. The United States became increasingly interested in Iran following the Second World War, particularly its oil reserves. Inthe U. In the years that followed, Iran forged closer ties with Washington, receiving large amounts of military and economic aid from America until the late s.
The country also saw increased Westernization, much to the dismay of the clergy who denounced the pro-Western policies and secularization. Rising discord with the hereditary monarch, known as the shah, marked the early s.
During the s, Shah Reza Pahlavi faced growing opposition led by exiled spiritual leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. After years of tenuously holding onto power with the backing of the U. With that, the pro-West regime of the shah gave way to an official anti-American stance that was openly encouraged by the mullahs and Iran became an Islamic republic.
Under a new constitution, a popularly elected president served as head of government but the highest state authority became the Supreme Leader, a powerful post filled by a cleric and empowered to name leaders of the armed forces, the chief judge and other high ranking officials.
When the deposed Shah was temporarily let into the U. Furious by a lack of action, the students and militants stormed the U. Embassy in Tehran on Nov. Iran become engulfed in a bloody, eight-year war with Iraq in CBC The hostage taking lasted days, and included a failed rescue attempt. The situation strained relations between the two countries.
Resolution came only when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as U. Meanwhile, even as Iran was occupied with the hostage-taking, tensions with its neighbour, Iraq, were escalating. Iraq invaded Iran in the fall of over a conflict sparked in part by a disagreement over the border in the Shatt-al-Arab waterway area.
The bloody, eight-year conflict would end up resolving little but took a toll on the nation. Reliable casualty counts are hard to come by, but estimates range fromto two million.
Over the years, the leadership of the Islamic republic has remained overwhelmingly conservative — true to the roots of the revolution, which came from the conservative countryside and the seminaries of the holy city of Qum.
And the conservatives remain firmly in power even now. Tehran claims its efforts are peaceful and aimed at building an atomic power station. Over the years, the U. Ahmadinejad has repeatedly riled the world with his controversial remarks, denouncing the Holocaust as a deception and issuing biting anti-Israel comments. InIran announced it had successfully produced enriched uranium.
Calls for Iran to halt its nuclear plans did little and sanctions were imposed. With a worsening economic situation, due in part to sanctions and falling oil prices, support for Ahmadinejad has diminished in recent years.
Reform candidate Mir Hossein Mousavi, a former prime minister, hoped to capitalize on that in the June presidential elections, but Ahmadinejad announced a landslide victory.
One of those killed in the demonstrations and security crackdown was an apparent innocent bystander, Neda Agha-Soltan, whose final seconds on June 20 were captured on amateur video and viewed around the world. Neda, as she was known, became in death an icon for opposition protesters. Come and see what makes Central Florida so. Citrus Hill features full hookup sites with picnic tables.
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