Wars of Alexander the Great - Wikipedia
Alexander III of Macedon commonly known as Alexander the Great was a king ( basileus) of the In BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and began a series of .. Map of Alexander's empire and his route .. at Amphipolis, dating from the time of Alexander the Great has given rise to speculation. Alexander III of Macedon, known as Alexander the Great (21 July BCE – 10 or He projected the overthrow of the Persian Empire, landed forces in Asia and . about the boundaries and strengths of Persia when he was seven years old). Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He was inspiration . To that date nobody had succeeded in raveling the knot. But the young.
By the late summer of Alexander was in Cilicia, south of Darius and his armies. At Issus the two kings met in battle. Alexander was outnumbered, but utilizing the oblique formations he rushed the Persian center line and Darius turned his chariot and fled.
The Persian line crumbled. In November, Alexander attacked the Persian royal camp, gained hoards of booty, and captured the royal family.
Ancient Greek civilization
He treated Darius's wife, mother, and three children with respect. Darius's army was beaten, and the King became a fugitive.
Alexander publicly announced his personal claim to the throne of Persia and proclaimed himself king of Asia. But before he could pursue his enemy into Persia, he needed to control the seas and the coastal territories of Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt to secure his chain of supply. Aradus, Byblos, and Sidon welcomed Alexander but Tyre resisted. In January Alexander began his long and arduous siege of Tyre. He built moles to the island city, employed siege machines, fought off the Tyrian navy and army, and 8 months later seized the fortress.
Darius now sought to come to terms with Alexander and offered a large ransom for his family, a marriage alliance, a treaty of friendship, and the part of his empire west of the Euphrates.history of Alexander the Great empire 334 BC - 323 BC Map
Alexander ignored Darius's offer, planning to conquer all. Egypt fell to Alexander without resistance, and the Egyptians hailed him as their deliverer from Persian hegemony.
In every country Alexander had respected the local customs, religions, and peoples. In Jerusalem he had retained the priestly rule of the Temple, and in Egypt he sacrificed to the local gods. At Memphis the Egyptian priesthood recognized him as pharaoh, offered him the royal sacrifices, and invested him as king on the throne of Ptah.
They hailed Alexander as a god. When Alexander visited the oracle of the Phoenician god Ammon at Siwa, the priest greeted him as the son of Ammon.
From this time he seems to have accepted the idea of his own divinity. All across his Asian empire, oracles confirmed Alexander's divinity, and the people paid him divine honors. Alexander promoted Greek culture in Egypt. In he founded the city of Alexandria, which became the center of Hellenistic culture and commerce.
Devoted to science, Alexander dispatched an expedition up the Nile to investigate the sources of the river and the true explanation for its inundations. The Persian army collapsed, and Alexander pursued Darius into the Kurdish mountains.
Abandoning the chase, Alexander systematically explored Babylonia, the rich farmlands, palaces, and treasuries which Darius had abandoned. In Babylon, Alexander celebrated the New Year 's Festival in honor of the god Marduk, whereby the god extended his divine pleasure and confirmed the lawful monarchy. To prevent a royal uprising and to exact punishment for the Persian destruction of Athens inAlexander burned Persepolis, a rash but symbolic act.
In the spring of he marched to Darius's last capital, Ecbatana modern Hamadan.
There Alexander left Parmenion in charge of the vast confiscated treasuries and all communications and set off in pursuit of Darius. Darius had fled beyond the Caspian Gates with his eastern satraps.
When Alexander caught up with them in Julythe satraps had assassinated Darius. Alexander ordered a royal funeral with honors for his foe. As Darius's successor and avenger, Alexander captured the assassins and punished them according to Persian law. Now Persian king, Alexander began to wear Persian royal clothing and adopted the Persian court ceremonials. As elsewhere, Alexander employed local officials in his administration.
He did, however, maintain his position of leader of the Corinthian League toward the Greek ambassadors. Consequently, he pushed eastward and for 3 years campaigned in eastern Iran.
Indian campaign of Alexander the Great - Wikipedia
He secured the region, founded cities, and established colonies of Macedonians. In the spring of he seized the almost impregnable high rock fortress of Ariamazes and captured the Bactrian prince Oxyartes. Alexander married Oxyartes's daughter Rhoxana to bind his Eastern empire more closely to him in a political alliance. The Macedonians began to resent Alexander's Oriental customs and dress and his demand that they prostrate themselves before him.
Parmenion's son Philotas conspired against Alexander, who executed the traitor according to Macedonian law and also ordered the death of Parmenion on false charges. In the summer of Alexander marched to the Punjab and the Indus Valley. The following year his first son died in India. In northern India, Alexander defeated the armies of King Porus. Impressed with his bravery and nobility, Alexander reestablished Porus as king and gained his loyalty.
Continuing his progress eastward, Alexander reached the Ganges, where his armies refused to go farther, and after 2 days of struggle Alexander turned back. The army returned westward along the Indus, but when Alexander was seriously wounded while fighting the fierce Malli warriors, his army was overwhelmed with grief.
They cheered his recovery, and all animosities were forgiven. By July the army and its fleet had reached the Indus Delta. The fleet continued north in the Persian Gulfwhile the army began to march along the barren and inhospitable coast. Hardship and death brought havoc to the army, which joined up with the fleet weeks later. In January Alexander reached Persepolis, which he had left 5 years earlier, and in February he was in Susa.
But disorder had spread throughout the empire during Alexander's campaigns in the East. Festival at Susa Greatly concerned with the rule of his empire and the need for soldiers, officers, and administrators, Alexander attempted to bind the Persian nobility to the Macedonians to forge a ruling class.
Indian campaign of Alexander the Great
At Susa he ordered 80 of his Macedonian companions to marry Persian princesses. Alexander, although married to Rhoxana, married Stateira, a daughter of Darius, to legitimize his sovereignty. When Alexander incorporated 30, Persians into the army, his soldiers grumbled. At Opis that summer, when he decided to dismiss his aged and wounded Macedonian soldiers, the angry soldiers condemned his Persian troops and his Persian manners.
Alexander arrested 13 of their leaders and executed them. He then addressed the army and movingly reminded them of their glories and honors. After 3 days the Macedonians repented, and in a thanksgiving feast the Persians joined the Macedonians as forces of Alexander—but not as brothers. Alexander's Death In the spring of Alexander moved to Babylon and made plans to explore the Caspian Sea and Arabia and then to conquer northern Africa. On June 2 he fell ill with malaria, and 11 days later, at the age of 32, he was dead.
A few months later his wife Rhoxana bore him a son, who was assassinated in Alexander's empire was little more than a vast territory improperly ruled by the king and his bureaucrats. Nations and peoples did not blend harmoniously together but were governed by Macedonians for their King.
Persian Empire - HISTORY
The empire collapsed at his death, and nations and generals vied for power. The Greek culture that Alexander introduced in the East had barely developed.
But in time, and under the "successor" kingdoms, the Oriental and Greek cultures blended and flourished as a by-product of the empire. Further Reading The most thorough study of Alexander, and perhaps the most accurate interpretation, is Ulrich Wilcken, Alexander the Great ; trans. Burn, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire ; 2d ed. Tarn, Alexander the Great 2 vols. Visit Website The Persians were the first people to establish regular routes of communication between three continents—Africa, Asia and Europe.
Persian Culture The ancient Persians of the Achaemenid Empire created art in many forms, including metalwork, rock carvings, weaving and architecture. As the Persian Empire expanded to encompass other artistic centers of early civilization, a new style was formed with influences from these sources. Early Persian art included large, carved rock reliefs cut into cliffs, such as those found at Naqsh-e Rustam, an ancient cemetery filled with the tombs of Achaemenid kings.
The elaborate rock murals depict equestrian scenes and battle victories. Ancient Persians were also known for their metalwork. In the s, smugglers discovered gold and silver artifacts among ruins near the Oxus River in present-day Tajikistan.
The artifacts included a small golden chariot, coins, and bracelets decorated in a griffon motif. The griffon is a mythical creature with the wings and head of an eagle and the body of a lion, and a symbol of the Persian capital of Persepolis. British diplomats and members of the military serving in Pakistan brought roughly of these gold and silver pieces—known as the Oxus Treasure—to London where they are now housed at the British Museum.
The history of carpet weaving in Persia dates back to the nomadic tribes.