Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - Wikipedia
Su, Mo, Tu, We, Th, Fr, Sa. 1, 2, 3. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, June 10, - Norway surrenders to the Nazis; Italy declares war on Britain and June 28, - Britain recognizes General Charles de Gaulle as the Free. The Greco-Italian War took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October Date, 28 October – 23 April .. On the eve of 28 October , Italy's ambassador in Athens, Emanuele Grazzi, handed an ultimatum.
The initial riots were spontaneous and somewhat violent. Within a few days the Taiwanese were generally coordinated and organized, and public order in Taiwanese-held areas was upheld by volunteer civilians organized by students, and unemployed former Japanese army soldiers.
Local leaders formed a Settlement Committee, which presented the government with a list of 32 Demands for reform of the provincial administration. They demanded, among other things, greater autonomy, free elections, surrender of the ROC Army to the Settlement Committee, and an end to governmental corruption. Outside of Taipei, it was less peaceful.
Mainland Chinese received revenge attacks of violence. Public places like banks and post offices were looted. Some had to flee for Military Police protection. A few smaller groups formed, including the Communist -inspired " 27 Brigade ". They looted 3 machine guns, rifles, and hand grenades from military arsenals in Taichung and Pingtung.
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The Nationalist Governmentunder Chen Yistalled for time while it assembled a large military force in Fujian. Upon its arrival on March 8, the ROC troops launched a crackdown. For a time everyone seen on the streets was shot at, homes were broken into and occupants killed. In the poorer sections the streets were said to have been littered with dead. There were instances of beheadings and mutilation of bodies, and women were raped, the American said. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message By the end of March, Chen Yi had ordered the imprisonment or execution of the leading Taiwanese organizers he could identify.
His troops reportedly executed, according to a Taiwanese delegation in Nanjingbetween 3, and 4, people throughout the island. The exact number is still undetermined, as only Taiwanese families applied for another compensation as recently as Some of the killings were random, while others were systematic.
Soviet-Romanian relations during the interwar period[ edit ] Interwar Romania — The Bessarabian question was both political and national in nature. According to the census, Bessarabiaat the time a guberniya of the Russian Empirehad a population that was There were 86 votes for union, 3 votes against union, 36 deputies refrained from voting, and 13 deputies were absent from this session.
The vote is regarded as controversial by several historians, including Romanian ones such as Cristina Petrescu and Sorin Alexandrescu. The representatives of the Ukrainian and Jewish populations boycotted the Congress, and the struggle between ethnic factions continued for several months. The ultimatum also came in the context of the Hungarian Revolutionwith the Soviets hoping to prevent a Romanian intervention in Hungary.
A large-scale rebellion in Ukraine prevented further Soviet advances. During the negotiations pre-dating the Treaty of Paristhe United States representative asked for a plebiscite to be held in Bessarabia to decide its future; however, the proposal was rejected by the head of the Romanian delegation, Ion I. Soviet Russia and Ukraine promptly notified Romania that they did not recognize the treaty's validity, and did not consider themselves bound by it.
The Romanian government saw this as a threat and a possible staging ground for a Communist invasion of Romania. Throughout the s, Romania considered itself a pillar in the cordon sanitaire policy of containment of the Bolshevik threat, and avoided direct relations with the Soviet Union. During his tenure, Grazzi worked earnestly for the improvement of Italian—Greek relations, something that Metaxas too desired—despite his anglophile stance, Grazzi considered him "the only real friend Italy could claim in Greece"—but he was in the awkward position of being ignorant of his country's actual policy towards Greece: Thus during Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano 's visit to Albania, posters supporting Albanian irredentism in Chameria were publicly displayed; the governor of the Italian Dodecanese, Cesare Maria De Vecchiclosed the remaining Greek communal schools in the province, and Italian troops were heard singing "Andremo nell'Egeo, prenderemo pure il Pireo.
And if all goes well, we will take Athens too. Four of the five Italian divisions in Albania moved towards the Greek border, and on 16 August the Italian Chief of the General Staff, Marshal Pietro Badoglioreceived orders to begin planning for an attack on Greece.1940s Man Dreams of Woman, Romance, Dating, Love
On 4 August, Metaxas had ordered Greek forces to a state of readiness and a partial mobilization. And this is by order of the Duce, who is thinking more and more of attacking Greece at the first opportunity.
Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
The Italian dictator even instructed Grazzi, to express his trust towards Metaxas and offer to sell Greece aircraft. Metaxas rejected this, as the British Foreign Office was opposed to a formal commitment by Greece to Italy, and made only a public declaration of friendship and good-will. Greek—Italian relations entered a friendly phase that lasted until spring From 18 June, De Vecchi sent a series of protests to Rome, reporting on the presence of British warships in Crete and other Greek islands and claimed that a British base had been established at Milos.
On 31 July Italian bombers attacked two Greek destroyers in the Gulf of Corinth and two submarines in Nafpaktos ; two days later a coastguard vessel was attacked at Aeginaoff Athens. Hodja was presented as a patriot fighting for the liberty of Chameria and his murder the work of Greek agents.
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Although Greek "expansionism" was denounced and claims for the surrender of Chameria made, Ciano and well-informed German sources regarded the press campaign as a means to intimidate Greece, rather than a prelude to war. The sinking was a result of orders by Mussolini and Navy chief Domenico Cavagnari allowing submarine attacks on neutral shipping.
This was taken up by De Vecchi, who ordered the Delfino's commander to "sink everything in sight in the vicinity of Tinos and Syros ", giving the impression that war was imminent. On the same day, another Greek steamship was bombarded by Italian planes in Crete. No-one was fooled and the sinking of Elli outraged the Greek people.
Ambassador Grazzi wrote in his memoirs that the attack united a people "deeply riven by unbridgeable political differences and old and deep-running political hatreds" and imbued them with a firm resolve to resist. Neither Metaxas nor Grazzi realized that the latter was being kept in his post "deliberately in order to allay the suspicions of the Greek government and so that the aggressive plans against Greece might remain concealed".
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Mussolini, who had not been informed in advance, regarded it as an encroachment on Italy's sphere of influence, and advanced plans for an invasion of Greece. Badoglio then issued the order for the Italian military to begin preparations for executing the existing war plan, "Contingency G[reece]", which envisioned the capture of Epirus as far as Arta but left the further pursuit of the campaign open. Roatta advised that an extension of the invasion beyond Epirus would require an additional ten divisions, which would take three months to arrive and suggested limiting the extent of the Italian demobilization.
Both generals urged Mussolini to replace the local commander, Lieutenant-General Sebastiano Visconti Prascawith someone of greater seniority and experience. Mussolini seemingly agreed but also insisted on the attack going ahead at the determined date, provisionally under Prasca's command. He reiterated his objectives and his determination that the attack take place on 26 October and asked for the opinion of the assembled. Jacomoni agreed that the Albanians were enthusiastic but that the Greeks would fight, likely with British help, while Ciano suggested that the Greek people were apathetic and would not support the "plutocratic" ruling class.
He was relatively junior in his rank and knew that if he demanded more troops for the Albanian front, it was likely that a more senior officer would be sent to command the operation, earning the accolades and promotions instead. Roatta suggested that the schedule of moving troops to Albania would have to be accelerated and called for two divisions to be sent against Thessaloniki as a diversion.