Turko persian culture and dating

CLOTHING xxvii. lexicon of Persian clothing – Encyclopaedia Iranica

turko persian culture and dating

Iran is a Persian cultural history, while Saudi Arabia is a Wahhabist Arab country. It was the earliest discussion that led to the exist of Turko-Persian traditions. The composite Turco-Persian tradition refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries in Khorasan and Transoxiana It was Persianate in. The influence of Buddhism on east Iranian culture must have been great although as witnessed by finds dating from this period of statues of Siva, Ganesh, and.

Ferdowsi enshrined in literary form the most treasured stories of popular folk-memory. Before the Ghaznavids broke away, the Samanid rulership was internally falling to its Turkic servants.

The Samanids had their own guard of Turkic Mamluk mercenaries the ghilmanwho were headed by a chamberlain, and a Persian and Arabic speaking bureaucracy, headed by a Persian vizier.

turko persian culture and dating

The army was largely composed of mostly Turkic Mamluks. By the latter part of the tenth century, Samanid rulers gave the command of their army to Turkic generals.

turko persian culture and dating

These generals eventually had effective control over all Samanid affairs. The rise of Turks in Samanid times brought a loss of Samanid southern territories to one of their Mamluks, who were governing on their behalf.

Mahmud of Ghazni ruled over southeastern extremities of Samanid territories from the city of Ghazni. Turkic political ascendancy in the Samanid period in the tenth and eleventh centuries resulted in the fall of Samanid ruling institution to its Turkic generals; and in a rise of Turkic pastoralists in the countryside.

The Ghaznavids founded empire which became a most powerful in the east since Abbasid Caliphs at their peak, and their capital at Ghazni became second only to Baghdad in cultural elegance. It attracted many scholars and artists of the Islamic world. Turkic ascendance to power in the Samanid court brought Turks as the main patrons of Persianate culture, and as they subjugated Western and Southern Asia, they brought along this culture.

The Kara-Khanid Khanate at that time were gaining pre-eminence over the countryside.

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The Kara-Khanids were pastoralists of noble Turkic backgrounds, and they cherished their Turkic ways. As they gained strength they fostered development of a new Turkish literature alongside the Persian and Arabic literatures that had arisen earlier.

Historical outline[ edit ] Beginning of the Turco-Persian symbiosis[ edit ] In Samanid times began the growth of the public influence of the ulamathe learned scholars of Islam. Ulama grew in prominence as the Samanids gave special support to Sunnismin contrast with their Shiite neighbors, the Buyids. They enjoyed strong position in the city of Bukharaand it grew under the Samanids' successors Kara-Khanid Khanate.

Kara-Khanids established a dominance of ulama in the cities, and the network of recognized Islamic authorities became an alternative social instrument for the maintenance of public order. In the Kara-Khanid Khanate formed an ethnically and dogmatically diverse society. The eastern lands of the Caliphate were ethnically and religiously very diverse.

ChristiansJewsand Zoroastrians were numerous, and also several minority Islamic sects had considerable following. These diverse peoples found refuge in the cities.

Bukhara and Samarkand swelled and formed ethnic and sectarian neighborhoods, most of them surrounded by walls, each with its own markets, caravansaraiesand public squares. The religious authorities of these non-Muslim communities became their spokesmen, just as the ulama were for the Muslim community, they also began overseeing internal communal affairs.

Thus, alongside the rise of the ulama, there was a corresponding rise in the political importance of the religious leaders of other doctrinal communities. It was managed by bureaucrats and ulama who used both Persian and Arabic, its literati participated in both the Arabic and Persian traditions of high culture of the wider Islamicate world. This composite culture was the beginning of the Turko-Persian variant of Islamicate culture.

As " Persianate " it was centred on a lettered tradition of Persian origin, it was Turkic because for many generations it was patronized by rulers of Turkic ancestry, and it was "Islamicate" because the Islamic notions of virtue, permanence, and excellence channeled the discourse about public issues and religious affairs of the Muslims, who were a presiding elite.

turko persian culture and dating

As the Turco-Persian Islamic culture was exported into the wider region of Western and Southern Asia, the transformation became increasingly evident. The early stages of Turco-Persian cultural synthesis in the Islamic world are marked by cultural, social and political tensions and competition among Turks, Persians, and Arabs, despite the egalitarianism of Islamic doctrine. The complex ideas around non-Arabs in the Muslim world [8] [9] lead to debates and changing attitudes that can be seen in numerous Arabic, Persian and Turkic writings before the Mongol expansion.

These two dynasties together drew the center of the Islamic world eastward. The institutions stabilized Islamic society into a form that would persist, at least in Western Asiauntil the twentieth century. Thus, the Turco-Persian culture was brought deep into India [13] and carried further in the thirteenth century. Seljuqs won a decisive battle with the Ghaznavids and then swept into Khorasanthey brought Turco-Persian Islamic culture westward into western Persia and Iraq.

Persia and Central Asia became a heartland of Persianate language and culture. As Seljuks came to dominate Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia, they carried this Turco-Persian culture beyond, and made it the culture of their courts in the region to as far west as the Mediterranean Sea.

The Seljuks subsequently gave rise to the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia, while taking their thoroughly Persianised identity with them, giving it an even more profound and noted history there. The great jurist and theologian al-Ghazali proposed a synthesis of Sufism and sharia that became a basis of a richer Islamic theology.

Turco-Persian tradition - Wikipedia

Formulating the Sunni concept of division between temporal and religious authorities, he provided a theological basis for the existence of Sultanatea temporal office alongside the Caliphate, which by that time was merely a religious office. The main institutional means of establishing a consensus of the ulama on these dogmatic issues were the madrasasformal Islamic schools that granted licensure to teach.


First established under Seljuqs, these schools became means of uniting Sunni ulama which legitimized the rule of the Sultans. The bureaucracies were staffed by graduates of the madrasas, so both the ulama and the bureaucracies were under the influence of esteemed professors at the madrasas.

A shared culture spread from Mediterranean to the mouth of Gangesdespite political fragmentation and ethnic diversity. The Mongols under Genghis Khan —58 and Timur Tamerlane, had the effect of stimulating development of Persianate culture of Central and West Asia, because of the new concentrations of specialists of high culture created by the invasions, for many people had to seek refuge in few safe havens, primarily India, where scholars, poets, musicians, and fine artisans intermingled and cross-fertilized, and because the broad peace secured by the huge imperial systems established by the Il-Khans in the thirteenth century and Timurids in the fifteenth centurywhen travel was safe, and scholars and artists, ideas and skills, and fine books and artifacts circulated freely over a wide area.

Turco-Persian tradition

Il-Khans and Timurids deliberately patronized Persianate high culture. Under their rule developed new styles of architecture, Persian literature was encouraged, and flourished miniature painting and book production, and under Timurids prospered Turkic poetry, based on the vernacular known as Chaghatai today called Uzbek ; of Turkic Qarluq origin.

turko persian culture and dating

In that period the Turco-Persian culture of India prospered. Mamluk guards, mostly Turks and Mongols, along with Persians now known as TajiksKhaljis and Afghansdominated India from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, ruling as Sultans in Delhi.

Their society was enriched by influx of Islamic scholars, historians, architects, musicians, and other specialists of high Persianate culture that fled the Mongol devastations of Transoxiana and Khurasan. After the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols inDelhi became the most important cultural center of the Muslim east. They patronized literature and music, but became especially notable for their architecture, because their builders drew from Muslim world architecture to produce a profusion of mosquespalaces, and tombs unmatched in any other Islamic country.

Socially, the Turco-Persian world was marked by a system of ethnologically defined elite statuses: Cultural affairs were marked by characteristic pattern of language use: A black horsehair-mesh veil worn as an amulet, permitting women to see while hiding their eyes from others cf. It has been worn since medieval times.

This term is relatively recent, and it is probable that, as Jean Chardin remarked in the midth century tr.

According to Rice tr. They often wore rings over their gloves. Urban women often follow Western fashions in gloves, some of which have long cuffs of goatskin or other soft leather.

Monawwar, commentary, II, pp. A length of cloth wrapped around the hips. Monawwar, commentary, II, p. A broad silk sash conferred by Qajar and Pahlavi shahs as a reward for service to the government or the country. General term for garments or clothing, often found in constructs denoting specific types of garments e.

A waistcoat or vest, worn by men since at least as early as the 18th century. The term appears in Persian texts from the 17th and 18th centuries e. In the 18th century wealthy men pulled cotton stockings, with knitted designs of birds and the like, over their trousers as villagers frequently still do. A generic term for leather shoes.

A felt overcoat worn in winter mainly by shepherds, camel drivers, and villagers. Robe of honor bestowed by the ruler upon his courtiers, foreign diplomats, and other dignitaries on important state occasions, holidays, and the like. Tattered woolen clothes of dervishes and Sufis; see dalq. Generic term for hat, headgear; see also crown. It was fitted at the waist and open under the armpits to facilitate movement.

This kind of coat was also popular in provincial towns and villages. A helmet; see armor. Eskandar Beg II, p. Leather slippers, often yellow, open at the back, without heels, but often turned up at the toes. Sometimes a strip of iron shaped like a horseshoe was nailed onto the sole under the heel. A coat or jacket with sleeves, worn over a shirt or shift. In villages it is generally made of floral-printed fabrics and cut in a wide bell shape like old-fashioned Western hoopskirts.

An overcoat copied from European models. Puttees, strips of thick cloth wound several times around the leg from the ankle to below the knee to protect the legs from cold. Woolen or cotton puttees worn by camel drivers, muleteers, and other workmen. It was cooler and more comfortable than cloth veils, but making the horsehair mesh was a delicate and difficult process.

Both men and women wore shifts trimmed with pearls or braid at the neck. The fleece is generally worn inside; similar coats were made from the skins of squirrels, ermines, sables, and other animals.

A half-boot rising to slightly above the ankle, usually made of leather with a thick sole. A long outer cloak buttoned down the front. In the 18th century Reinhold Niebuhr commented on the similarity between this garment and the long robes worn by men depicted on the Persepolis reliefs see ii, above. Monawwar, II, commentary, pp. Today this garment is worn mainly by members of the Islamic clergy; it is fuller through the torso than earlier versions but still wraps across the front.

turko persian culture and dating

A cotton shirt or shift Dozy, pp. According to Chardin tr. A coat of double-thick cloth densely padded with raw silk for wear in battle. Sayyeds wear plain black or green sashes, others plain white ones. In the countryside farmers also still wear sashes. A short, loose skirt with many pleats formerly worn by women over trousers and still to be seen in the local dress of some areas see xxii, above. They were tied on at the waist cf.